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Report Of Inspection Of The Ninth Military Department, 1819

The Mississippi Valley historical review
By Mississippi Valley Historical Association
Published by Mississippi Valley Historical Association, 1921
Item notes: v. 7

Report Of Inspection Of The Ninth Military Department, 1819

On May 28, 1814, after his successful campaign against the Creeks, Andrew Jackson was offered and accepted the rank of major general in the United States army, a position which carried the command of the Seventh military district, embracing Louisiana and Mississippi territory.1 When, in the spring of 1815, the army was reorganized on a peace footing with two divisions, Jackson was put in command of the division of the south2 and retained this position until the spring of 1821, when he was appointed governor of the newly acquired province of Florida.3

During much of this period Arthur Perenneau Hayne, the writer of the report herewith printed, was one of Jackson's most intimate friends and trusted lieutenants.4 Colonel Hayne was an elder brother of Robert Y. Hayne, and a grandnephew of Colonel Isaac Hayne, who was hanged by the British military authorities in the revolution.* After four years in business Hayne entered the United States army on May 3, 1808, as first lieutenant of the dragoon regiment commanded by Colonel Wade Hampton. When the war of 1812 opened Hayne was a captain. He served in the operations against Canada, and for his gallant conduct at the battle of Sacket harbor he was promoted to the rank of major and assigned to the First light dragoons in August, 1813. He accompanied General Wilkinson in his unsuccessful operations on the St. Lawrence, soon after which he was attached to the forces under the command of General Jackson, and distinguished himself both in the campaign against the Creeks and in the operations about New Orleans and Pensacola. When reporting the battle of the delta plain Jackson wrote, "Colonel Hayne was everywhere that duty or danger called."6 On April 12, 1814, Hayne was made colonel and inspector general in recognition of his services. After the battle of New Orleans, General Jackson sent Colonel Hayne with dispatches to Washington, and in the letter of instructions evidenced his appreciation of the merits of his subordinate: "I should do no less injustice to my own feelings than to your merits did I not return you my warmest acknowledgements. Be assured, sir, wherever you go, you carry with you my high sense of your services, my thanks for them, and my prayers for your prosperity."7

1 John S. Bassett, The life of Andrew Jackson (New York, 1911), 1:122-123.

2 Ibid,, 1:231.

s James Parton, The life of Andrew Jackson (Boston, 1866), 2:584-585.

* John B. O'Neall, Biographical sketches of the 'bench and bar of South Carolina (Charleston, 1859), 2:18; Theodore D. Jervey, Sobert T. Hayne and his times (New York, 1909), 40.

s Biographical details are given in Francis B. Heitman, Historical register of the United States army, from its organization, September £9, 1889 (Washington, 1890), 331; The national cyclopaedia of American biography (New York, 1900), 11:198; A biographical congressional directory 1774 to 190S: the continental congress: September B, 1774, to October SI, 1788, inclusive: the United States congress: the first congress to the fifty-seventh congress, March 4, 1789, to March 4, 1903 (Washington, 1903), 587.

When the army was reorganized in the spring of 1815 the office of inspector general was abolished; consequently Colonel Hayne was appointed adjutant general in the northern division and was given a furlough for the purpose of pursuing his legal studies, on the completion of which he was admitted to the bar of Pennsylvania. In May, 1816, Hayne again became inspector general attached to the division of the south, where he served until his resignation from the army in September, 1820.

Upon reentering civil life Colonel Hayne returned to South Carolina, where he practiced law and participated in the local political life; for several terms he was a member of the state legislature. Throughout all this time he retained his close relationship with General Jackson, frequently visiting him at the "Hermitage" after his resignation of the governorship of Florida. Indeed, Hayne was among those who convinced Jackson that Calhoun had supported him in the Florida affair of 1818.3

In, 1829 Colonel Hayne was one of South Carolina's presidential electors on the Jackson-Calhoun ticket. When Jackson became president he appointed his old friend naval agent in the

«Parton, Life of Andrew Jackson, 2:104.
inid., 2:276.
Ibid., 2:516-517, 544.

Mediterranean, a post which he held for five years; but, when the position of minister to Belgium was offered him, he declined it and returned to private life in Charleston, only to accept, on July 4, 1836, an appointment as major and paymaster in the army. This place he resigned in October of the same year.

Twenty-two years later Hayne was appointed United States senator, in place of J. J. Evans, deceased, and acted in this capacity from May 20, 1858, to January 5, 1859. He died in Charleston on January 7, 1867.

Talbot Chambers was born in Pennsylvania and was appointed a first lieutenant of infantry from that state on June 18, 1808. He attained his captaincy on October 31, 1811, and in April, 1813, was made major and assistant adjutant general. In February, 1814, he was assigned to the Fourth rifle regiment, and was advanced to lieutenant colonel in 1817 and to colonel in 1818. He was transferred to the First infantry in June, 1821. During the war of 1812 he was breveted lieutenant colonel (September, 1814) for gallant conduct in the sortie from Fort Erie. Colonel Chambers' career had an ignominious ending in 1826, when he was cashiered for drunkenness, although the other charges preferred against him were dismissed.9

Willoughby Morgan was appointed captain in the Twelfth infantry in April, 1812, and was promoted to the rank of major in June, 1813. After the war of 1812 was over he was retained in the army as a captain of a rifle regiment, but with a brevet of major; he attained the full rank of major in 1817. Successive promotions brought him to a colonelcy in 1830, two years before his death.10

William Bradford, born in Kentucky, was appointed from that state as captain of infantry in March, 1812, and later was promoted to the rank of major. He was retained as captain with a brevet of major, and in 1822, when with the Fourth infantry, he was made major. He resigned in 1824 and died in October, 1826."

Francis B. Heitman, Historical register and dictionary of the United States army, from its organization, September £9, 1789, to March £, 1903 (Washington, 1903), 1:294; Senate documents, 19 congress, 1 session, volume 4, no. 93.

10 Heitman, Historical register of the United States army (1890), 477.

" Ibid., 140.

Joseph Selden, appointed from Virginia as captain in April, 1812, rose to the rank of major and brevet lieutenant colonel for distinguished service. After the war he was retained as a captain. In 1820 he was transferred to the artillery, four months before he resigned in May.12

Wyly Martin entered the army as first lieutenant from Tennessee in July, 1813, and received an honorable discharge as captain in June, 1815. He was reinstated in December of the same year and served until 1823, when he resigned.13

Matthew J. Magee was a Pennsylvanian and entered service in the war of 1812 as a captain in the Pittsburgh blues, a volunteer. In March, 1813, he was entered in the regular army, from which he was honorably discharged in June, 1815, but was reinstated in the following January as lieutenant of ordnance with brevet of captain from March, 1814. In May he was made captain, the rank antedating to February, 1815. In various regiments of infantry he served until his death in June, 1824."

James Hudson Ballard of Maryland entered the army as second lieutenant in April, 1813. During the war he was regimental adjutant and in 1817 was made captain. In 1822 he was transferred to the artillery, where he served until his death in January, 1823."

Llewellin Hickman, born in Virginia, entered the Second rifle regiment as first lieutenant in March, 1814. He was retained in the same regiment when the war closed, was made captain in February, 1818, and resigned in May, 1820."

Stoughton Gannt, born a Virginian, enlisted in the regular army as surgeon's mate of a rifle regiment in June, 1813. He became first lieutenant in the Fourth rifle regiment and was retained in service after the war. He served successively as paymaster and captain and resigned in April, 1819."

Neither the name Gunnigh nor anything remotely resembling it appears in Heitman.

William Armstrong of Ohio enlisted in the rifles in January,

« Heitman, Historical register of the United States army (1890), 580. " Heitman, Historical register and dictionary of the United States army (1903), 1:693.

i* Ibid., 1:684.
"Ibid., 1:187.
"Ibid., 1:528.
"Ibid., 1:444.

1813, was made a third lieutenant two months later, and a second lieutenant in January, 1814. He remained in the regular army and became a lieutenant in October, 1816, and a captain in July, 1818. He died in service in 1827."

Bennett Biley of Maryland was the only person among the officers mentioned in this report who rose to high rank in the army. He enlisted as a private, became a second lieutenant before the end of the war of 1812, first lieutenant, regimental adjutant, and captain by 1818. In September, 1837, he was major in the Fourth infantry, after having been made brevet major for ten years' faithful service in one rank. In 1839 he became a lieutenant colonel, and colonel on the day when the battle of Chokachatta, Florida, was fought, July 2, 1840, for particularly distinguishing himself by bravery and good conduct as well as for long, meritorious, and gallant service. In the Mexican war he was made brigadier general for gallant and meritorious action in the battle of Cerro Gordo, in April, 1847, and major general for his conduct in the battle of Contreras. He died in the harness in 1853.19

James S. Gray, born in Virginia, enlisted from Kentucky as third lieutenant in the First rifles in May, 1813. He rose to a second lieutenancy and was retained at this rank after the war. He was promoted to a first lieutenancy in 1817, served for some months in 1818 as regimental quartermaster, and became a captain in November of that year. In 1826 he was cashiered."

Thomas Floyd Smith enlisted as a private from Kentucky in a rifle regiment in July, 1813. He was honorably discharged as a second lieutenant in June, 1815, but was reinstated at his old rank in December. He became first lieutenant in 1817, captain in 1819, and in April, 1829, brevet major for ten years' faithful service in one rank. He resigned in October, 1837, and died in 1844."

L. B. S.

"Heitman, Historical registry of the United States army (1903, 1:170.

wibid., 1:831. See also the report of the court of inquiry, held at Puebla, Mexico, to ascertain the facts relating to the battle of Cerro Gordo. House executive documents, 30 congress, 1 session, volume 9, no. 85.

20 Heitman, Historical register and dictionary of the United States army (1903), 1:472.

Col. A. P. Hayne, Report of Inspection of the 9th Military Department, Including Fort Armstrong and Fort Edwards, October, 1819."

Confidential Report Continued.

9th Military Department.23

Talbot Chambers. Col1 Rifle Reg' An attentive, valuable & competent Officer.

Willoughby Morgan. L' Col1 Rifle Regiment, In the Field, active, vigilant, & brave — a man of talents.

William Bradford. Majr Rifle Regiment. Brave, enthusiastic & devoted to his profession.

Jos. Selden, Capt. Rifle Reg' — Intelligent and Gentlemanly.
W. Marten. Capt. Rifle Reg' — An attentive Officer.
Matthew. I. Magee. Capt. Not known.
I. H. Ballard. Capt. The same as the last.
Lewellen Heckman. Capt. The same as the last.

Stoughton Gantt. Capt. One among the most intelligent & valuable
Officers in the Regiment.

I. M. Gunnigh. Capt. Intelligent & industrious & in every respect a valuable Officer.

Wm Armstrong. Capt. Indolent, tho' capable of making a good Officer.

Bennet Riley. Capt. Subordinate, enterprising, active & brave.
J* S. Gray. Capt. Not known.
T. F. Smith 1" Lt. An intelligent, active & valuable Officer.

Progress made in the 9th Military Department, in Discipline, Police, &c &c &°

This Department, till very lately, has been under the immediate Command of Col1 Chambers. In speaking of the Command, I shall refer to his Administration. The Rifle Corps is the only description of Troops that have man'd this Depart' — It will be admitted, when their situation is contrasted with other Regiments of the Army, that they have laboured under many disadvantages. They have not only been disposed by Companies, the natural consequence of their occupying so extensive a Depart' but they have also been employed on fortifications & and other incessant tho' indispensable fatigue duty, without any manner of respit or relaxation. In addition to this, they have existed in the Want of a system of Drill, calculated for that particular Arm of an Army. But every exertion has been resorted to by Col1 Chambers, to remedy this defect. He has devised a system of File Movements predicated on the movements of Light Infantry, & which he has practiced whenever circumstances would permit. They are taught to perform their Evolutions by Bugle Signals. The firing at the Target has been constantly practiced. The Interior economy & police of the Regiment is excellent — & so soon as concentration is effected, this Regiment will perform all of it's Movements, with that Celerity & Promptitude which ever ought to characterise Riflemen. — Col1 Chambers is a faithful & vigilant Officer; — none more so in our Army; — & is in every respect acquainted with his Duty. The Field, & company Officers, are generally acquainted with their Duty. The Adjutants, Quarter Master & Pay Masters are competent to the Duties assigned them. The Provisions have been of good quality. The Forage sufficient. Hospital Supplies sufficient.

22 This report is a transcript of a pbotostatic copy, in the possession of the Illinois state historical library, of United States war department, inspector general's office, Inspection record, 1814-1823, pp. 110-124.

23 Departments eight and nine were in the division of the south. The department headquarters were at Belle Fontaine in Missouri territory, while other posts within the department were at Belle Pointe on the Arkansas, Fort Osage on the Missouri river, Fort Edwards on the Mississippi, Fort Armstrong at Rock Island, and Fort Crawford at Prairie du Chien; a garrison and an arsenal were located at Newport, Kentucky. Report for October, 1818, in American state papers: military affairs, 1:790.

The Ordna[n]ce Department, altho' superintended by an Officer of Talents, Zeal & Industry, has proven in some respects defective.

The Powder Horns for the Reg' are too small, & not water proof.
Report of the different Posts in the 9th Department, while under the
Command of Col1 Chambers.

Fort Crawford ** (Les Praire des Chiens) is an Indian work, composed of strong Oak Logs, of a square form, with two block houses, each containing a twelve & six pounder. The Curtain of the Work is formed by the buildings, with appropriate loop holes, & and the Angles strongly Picketed. The Quarters are very neat and comfortable & capable of accomodating 400 men, with the necessary Store Houses &c comprised in the Curtain of the Work. It's local situation is an extensive Praire, surrounded by immense high hills, but too distant to command the Work, if occupied by an enemy. It is capable of defending itself against any combined Indian attack, altho' it is in the power of the Indians in 12 days to assemble 2000 Warriors. But it is not calculated to sustain an attack against Artillery. The greatest disadvantage which it labours under, is the inconvenience of procuring wood, which cannot be done at a less distance than Six Miles; — & then attended with uncommon trouble & fatigue; — & in a state of War wd be would [sic] constantly be exposed to a predatory attack from the Indians. One half of the Command is generally exposed to the collection of Wood, from one to three months every fall Season. The Site is healthy & if necessary could be supported by the productions of the surrounding Country. Fort Armstrong,TM (situate at the Mouth of Rock River) is in the neighborhood of the Souxs and & Fox tribes of Indians. It commands the Mississippi River — is of a square form — composed of strong Oak Logs, well built, with Two block houses, each mounting a Twelve & a Six pounder, & capable of quartering two Companies, but subjecte to be commanded by a Neighbouring height at point blanque distance. It is however sufficiently strong to repel any attack from the Indians — & with the exception of Provisions has every necessary article within reach — the former of which can be procured from Sl Louis. Belle Fontaine M is considered at present as the Depot of this Department. It stands within about four miles of the Confluence of the Missouri & Mississippi Rivers. The Cantonment is very illy constructed & with the exception of the Store houses is in a state of Delapidation. As a Depot it is very inconvenient, in consequence of its distance from Sl Louis, & and the difficulty & danger which attends the Ascent & Descent of the Missouri River. It has been in contemplation to erect a more suitable establishment on a site more contiguous to Sl Louis, & which affords an excellent harbor for boats &c but the Comd1 of the Depart1 deemed the price of the Land on which it was intended to be erected too extravagant. ,

2* Military authorities determined in the summer of 1815 to make a strong military post and Indian factory at the mouth of the Wisconsin river. Not until the next year, however, was the work actually begun under the direction of John W. Johnson, the agent appointed for this place. Wisconsin historical collections, 19:383-384, and note.

Fort Smith " (situate at Belle Point, about 500 miles up the Arkinsaw River) is now in a state of progression. It is intended to be a square Work of Strong Timber, calculated for Indian Defence & to Quarter one ComT with the necessary Store Houses &c —

« Fort Armstrong was established in 1816 as one of the links in a chain of posts to protect the western frontier. Clarence W. Alvord, The Illinois country, 1673-1818 (Centennial history of Illinois, volume 1 — Springfield, 1920), 451.

2 Belle Fontaine, the department headquarters and cantonment, was established by General James Wilkinson in 1806 at a point north of the mouth of the Missouri. The> fort was virtually abandoned the next year when Wilkinson went south on account of the Burr affair. William B. Davis and Daniel S. Durrie, An illustrated history of Missouri comprising it» early record, and civti, political, and military history from the first exploration to the present time (Cincinnati, 1876), 51.

7 The construction of Fort Smith was begun in 1817 with the establishment of an army post. A town of the same name grew up and eventually the surrounding country was made into the county of Fort Smith. This was for many years the principal depot for the western posts. It was abandoned in 1871, after it had played a part in the civil war. Fay Hempstead, Historical review of Arkansas: its flommerct, industry and modern affairs (Chicago, 1911), 1:523.

Fort Edwards 23 on the Mississippi & Fort Osage 29 on the Missouri, orders have been issued for their abandonment — the latter is in a state of dilapidation.

I [sic] will be perceived from the above description of the Posts & Fortification, how much severe fatigue Duty the Rifle Corps has performed.

The late accession of Two Regiments of Infantry to this Department of the Army, may be looked upon as a very fortunate Circumstance. For all the Posts comprised within the limits of the Department, in consequence of the enfeebled state of the Commands were perfectly incapacitated from resorting to Offensive operations, in any event, or even of enforcing the U. S. Laws. The limited number of Troops, would not on any occasion have admitted the making of such Detachments, as w3 have made a Salutary impression on the minds of the Indians. I have heretofore looked upon the Posts in this Department, as being of very little real value; — & in the event of a sudden rapture, w4 have shared the fate of all trivial & weak establishments, situated at a great distance from each other: — and from starvation & other causes w4 it is more than probable have fallen in regular succession, & accompanied by frequent Massacres, as during the commencement of the late War. But it is believed, that the weak & exposed Flank of our Country is now safe. In speaking of this interesting Country, & the proper mode of Defending it, the following is the substance of a communication I have lately received from one of my Military correspondents in that Quarter.

The Indians in the Missouri Country compose a number of Warriors well armed and mounted. For attack, not less than 15,000 can be concentrated at any given point. This force is exclusive of the Sioux's & Chippaways of the plains of the Mississippi, with whom they are in the habit of conferring & with whom they cd cooperate by the way of Stony Lake in three weeks. The latter tribes are remarkably brave & expert in War, & are jealous of the American character, & completely under the control of the British Companies, particularly that of the "Hudson Bay," who have been and are still incessantly Cabaling to induce the

23 After the repulse of Taylor when he was trying to drive the British and the Indians from Rock Island in August, 1814, this post was established. Alvord, The Illinois country, 1673-1818, p. 447.

»Fort Osage was also variously known as Fort Clark and Fort Sibley. It was built in 1808 on a bluff one mile from Sibley on land bought from the Osage Indians, the "six-mile tract." At the time Colonel Haynos made his inspection, Fort Osage was the extreme frontier settlement, some 330 miles above the mouth of the Missouri. Encyclopedia of the history of Missouri (St. Louis, 1901), 2:492; Louis Houck, A history of Missouri from the earliest explorations and settlements until the admission of the state into the union (Chicago, 1908), 3:148.

Indians to oppose our making any additional establishments on the Mississippi & Missouri Rivers. Whether they will succeed or not in their views is still uncertain. But it has been the impression, & is still believed, that if a respectable & well appointed force is not kept in that country they will be induced to become hostile.

In the establishment of the Posts on the Missouri it is therefore respectfully submitted for consideration the propriety of holding but few positions & having them well situated & completely formed & strongly manned, with a disposable force of mounted men. Thus an excursion could be promptly made to punish any Depredations which might be attempted on the part of the Indians. The advantages that w4 result from having the Troops thus formed & equip' seems very apparent. It w4 enable the Troops to supply themselves with the Product of the Country, which can only be obtained by cultivating the Soil & Hunting Excursion. If we have not large parties to send out on this Duty, the Indians becomet emboldened will either attack them or drive the game off (which can be easily done) beyond our reach. They will also have it in their power to harass & annoy our small parties which can always be done with impunity if they are mounted & we destitute of horsemen in that Campaign Country: — & the consequence will be that we lose our respectable standing in their estimation: — and they will then listen to the artful suggestion of our implacable enemies the British — commence hostilities — cut off our supplies — & reduce us to a state of starvation.

Therefore taking into consideration the general aspect of the Country in Question — it being so exclusively calculated for the operations of Mounted men; — the total impracticability of our being able to enforce the United States Laws, governing Indian trade, if concise measures are not resorted to & for which purpose a respectable mil7 force seems necessary. I w4 by leave under this view of the subject to suggest the occupancy of but Two positions — vis — Mandanso & the Mouth of the Yellow Stone Kiver.31 The former position is in the neighbourhood of the "Hudson Bay" Company establishment — where their movements & motions can be narrowly watched & detected — & besides a ready communication can be supported with the establish' in S' Peters River s2 by the way of Stoney Lake.33 The Post at Yellow Stone it is presumed will communicate with the establish' on the Arkensaw River, & detect any insidious attempt from that Quarter by the Spaniards, who frequently visit that Country. The two positions above recommended would require at least 400 men each, mounted and armed with Swords & Rifles or Muskets. It is calculated that one fourth of the Command at each Post including sick men & those otherwise disabled, will be sufficient to perform all the necessary fatigue attendant on Cultivation, whilst the remainder completely armed & rendered expert, by attending solely to the duties of Soldiers, & divided into Three several Detachments, will Scour the Country throughly & at the same time supply the Command with Wild meat. Under proper arrangements, the expense of mounting & equiping the Command, w4 not be very considerable. Horses can be procured, I am informed for $10 (in trade) a head. Saddles, Bridles &c — cd be manufactured, from the Skins which are taken. And after having once received a supply of Horses, by proper management, we shall require no more by purchase. Thus formed and equiped the Corps could act in the Three fold capacity of Dragoons Infantry & Riflemen.

30 Lewis and Clark established a fort on the left bank of the Missouri for their winter quarters in 1804-1805. The location was seven or eight miles below the mouth of the Knife river, nearly opposite the site of Fort Clark, which became a fortified trading post in 1822 and a true frontier fort in 1831, erected by the American fur company. Original journals of the Lewis and Clark expedition, 1804-1806, edited by Reuben G. Thwaites (New York, 1904), 1:217, note. Hiram M. Chittenden, The American fur trade of the far west; a history of pioneer trading posts and early fur companies of the Missouri valley and the Roclcy mountains and of the overland commerce with Santa Fe (New York, 1900), 3:957.

si The first post at the mouth of the Yellowstone was established by Ashley and Henry in 1822, but it was abandoned the next year. In 1828 a party sent out by Kenneth McKenzie built what was probably called Fort Floyd, and the next year Fort Union, which had been located some two hundred miles up the Yellowstone, was erected on the Missouri. Chittenden, American fur trade of the far west, 3:958-960.

I have the honor, to submit the foregoing remarks to the Comd* Gen1 under the belief, that it presents a subject worthly of his most serious consideration. I beg leave also to Subjoin, some general reflections on the importance of Cavalry Service, believing as I do that this branch of our Service, has been entirely overlooked & that it is a subject of vital importance to our Country, whenever she is again engaged in European Warfare. Of the expediency of Mounted men to connect our distant posts on the Western & Noth western frontier of our Country, there can be but one opinion.

Cavalry Corps.

'' Cavalry we have little need of; — the enemy cannot send against us any considerable force of that description by Sea, & our Northern Frontiers are unfavorable to its movements."

32 In September, 1819, a command under Leavenworth established itself on the south bank of the St. Peter's or Minnesota river, at Mendota, at the confluence with the Mississippi. The following year work was begun on a permanent work across the river. Fort St. Anthony, as it was called, became the later Fort Snelling. Richard W. Johnson, "Fort Snelling from its foundation to the present time," in Minnesota historical collections, 8:426-428.

33 Big Stone Lake.

"By W» Theobald Wolfe Tone"

"formerly Officer of Light Cavalry
& Aid De Camp in the French Service
& member of the Legion of Honor.''
Chapter 6 — page. 74.

I must enter my Dissent to the Opinion expresses in the above Quotation— altho' as far as I have been able to judge, it seems to offer the general sentiment of the Nation. The Argument seems to me to be a very plain one; — & the following are my reasons.

The Cavalry, is that Arm of an Army, which is peculiarly adapted, to the Defence of the United States. No Nation, not even the Arabs ex- cepted, are as good horsemen as the Independent Yeomanry of the Western and South Western Section's of our Country. The Boy is there taught, at the earliest period to ride, & to value himself upon his skill in horsemanship; — after which the gun is placed in his hands, & the Chase becomes not only a favorite but highly useful employment. Our Horses too are as well adapted for Cavalry Service, as those of any other Nation.

I think, it will hardly be denied, That when Two Hostile Armies take the Field against each other, & are in every respect upon an equality — whose Chiefs, are on a footing, in point of Military Talent and Capacity for War — whose Discipline,' Munitions & Equipment are alike; — but the one of them possessed of a decided superiority in a well appointed Cavalry; — that the one possessed of this superiority must always be victorious. This opinion (I must say Fact.) is clearly supported, as well by History, as the opinions of Military men. It will also be admitted, that in the best & most perfect Organized Armies, from the Days of Caesar, to the period when Bonaparte invaded the Russian Empire, That the the Cavalry always composed a most respectable portion of all Armies.

Now in those Wars, which may take place at a future period, such is the great distance & expense of transporting Cavalry across the Atlantic. That the Nations of Europe can never avail themselves of this useful species of Troops. And hence the conclusion is irresistible, That European Armies invading this Country & being destitute of that important Arm of an Army, can never make head against an American Army, supported by superior & well appointed Cavalry Corps. For this superiority in every instance in which, it is supported by equal Genius in the Chief, decides the Victory. And this is a Desideratum in the Mititan History of our Country, which is peculiar to the Country itself; — & fraught with the most important consequences if properly attended to; — & is well worthy of the serious & most mature reflection & deliberation of the Government.

Again, in Military affairs, we are taught by experience, how to set a proper value on time. Now, it is Celerity of Movement above all things, that most effectually places us in a situation to command time. And to bring about so desirable an event, Cavalry Corps are the most active & important agent used on the occasion. It was Celerity of Movement & the result produced there from which exhibited the French Army under the Dynasty of Bonaparte as the most perfect that ever existed. The cause and the effect are here clearly perceived.

I hazard nothing in saying, that Two Hundred Veteran Cavalry, after the Battle of Chippewa, led on by a William Washington, w4 have captured the whole British Army. What a saving of Blood & money would this have been to the Nation. But the American Army was on that occasion destitute of Cavalry. It has been contended tho', & by Officers of the highest Grade on the the [sic] Niagara Frontier, That the Country about Fort George was by no means calculated for the operations of Cavalry. But 1 assume the position, That after Defeat, Cavalry are always effectual & efficient. The Charge of Cavalry after the Defeat of the Enemy is by independent File, each horseman acting in his own individual Capacity. Under such circumstances, it matters but little, if the face of the Country is Bough. But previous to Defeat, if the Charge is to be made upon unbroken Infantry — it is always done in line in Column. In the latter case, the Country about Fort George, wd be unfavorable for Cavalry operation. I have always been under the impres- srion, that your Campaign against the the [sic] Creek Nation of Indians, wd have failed, without the prompt aid of your Mounted men.'*

I will hear mention another circumstance which tho' it may appear Curious, is nevertheless true — vis: — That it is in the Cavalry service, that the best and most efficient Officers are found. Corps of this Description are always in the presence of the enemy — their Officers are ever at the Head of separate & independent commands — depending upon the resources of their own Genius & constantly exercising their own judgment, & to which we may add the fact, that where the Artillery & Infantry Officer is in one Battle, the Cavalry and Rifle Officer is ten times. It is in the hour of battle — it is at that perilous Crisis, that Mil7 Genius Develops itself; — & it is in that situation that such men as the gallant Howard of Revolutionary fame,35 could ever feel the full extent of his Capacity, talents, & Mily Genius.

s* General Jackson's operations against the Creeks, 1813-1814. One regiment of volunteer cavalry and one of mounted riflemen had been used to good advantage in the Fort Strother affair, November 3, 1813, and in the later phases of the campaign. Bassett, Life of Andrew Jackson, 1: chapters 7 and 8.

The Moral effect of horsemen in all armies, more especially in their operating against Savage Nations, is much greater than is generally imagined. In the formation of all armies to a certain extent, one mounted man, is worth ten foot Soldiers.

Let it be remembered too, that well appointed Cavalry Corps are not to be formed in a day. The King of Prussia, who was in an especial manner the Father of this Species of Troops, & whose Cavalry was the finest & the most perfect the World has ever seen, said it w4 take 5 yrs to form a Veteran Dragoon. In oiir Country it w* certainly take half that time.

And finally without Cavalry in a regular Campaign, none of the Fruits of victory can be realized — without Cavaltry Mil7 operations are reduced to a mere mechanical opposition of strength — because the Cavalry alone can give those last & fine touches to Victory which make it complete and render it effectual.

All of which, is respectfully,

submitted to yr consideration
by yr ob1 ser*
A. P. Hayne

Insp' Gen1

To. S° Div.

Majr Gen1 A. Jackson Octr 1819.

Comd* S° Army.
Hd QTM Nashville.


[Indorsement:] Confidential report of the Inspector Genl Col Hoyne on the Southern Division of the U S Army in 1819 — No- 2

** Lieutenant Colonel Howard, in the battle of Cowpens, turned the tide against Tarleton's forces by leading an attack of his continentals. It was in this engagement, as well, that Lieutenant Colonel Washington used his cavalry to such advantage against the British horse. Robert Tomes, Battles of America by sea and land: consisting of the colonial and revolutionary battles, the tear of 1812, and the Mexican campaigns; with biographies of naval and military commanders, and illustrative anecdotes (New York, 1861), 2:301, 302.

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