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Noted ex-Riflemen in the Mexican War - segue into the CIVIL WAR and US Sharpshooters

The "Linchpin" Rifleman - Bennett Riley

In the biography of Bennett Riley (Fredriksen's "Forsythe Avenger") one may link the legacy of the "old" Rifle Regiment of the War of 1812 with that of the two "Rifle Regiments" of the Mexican War - the US Regiment of Mounted Riflemen and the US Regiment of Voltigeurs and Foot Riflemen -

Born in Md. Appointed from Md. Ensign Rifles. 19 Jan.. 1813. 3rd Lieut., 12 March, 1813. 2nd Lieut.. 15 ApriL 1814. 1st Lieut., 31 March. 1817. Reg. Adj.. Dec, 1816. to July. 1817. Capt., 6 Aug., 1818. Trans, to 5th Inf., 1 June. 1821. Trans, to 6th Inf., 3 Oct., 1821. Maj. 4th Inf., 26 Sept., 1837. Lieut. Col. 2nd Inf., 1 Dec, 1839. Col. 1st Inf. 31 Jan., 1850. Died 9 June, 1853. Bvt. Maj., 6 Aug., 1828, for ten years" faithful service in one grade. Bvt. Col.. 2 June, 1840, for bravery. good conduct, etc. at the Battle of Chokachatta. Fia., etc. Bvt. Brig. Gen., 18 April. 1837. for gallant and meritorious conduct at the Battle of Cerro Gordo. Bvt. Maj. Gen., 20 Aug.. 1847, for gallant conduct at Contreras. Мех.
- List of officers of the army of the United States from 1779 to 1900 William Henry Powell, 1900

Riley, Bennett
Ens Rifle. 19 Jan. 1813 and Third Lt Mar 1813: Second Lt 1st Rifle Apr 1814: retained, May 1815, in Rifle: First Lt Mar. 1817: Captain Aug. 1818: in 5th infy May 1821: transferred Oct. 1821. to 6th infy: distinguished in engagement under Colo Leavenworth with Ariekaree Indians. Aug. 1823: brevet Major ten years faithfl service 6 Aug. 1828: in Black Hawk's war: Major 4th infy 26 Sept 1837 :Lt Colonel 2nd infy 1 Dec 1837 :brevet Colonel, to rank from "the day on which was fought the battle of Chokachatta Flo, in which. he particularly distinguished himself by bravery and good conduct and for long meritorious, and gallant service." 2 June 1840 (Feb 1844): comding 2nd infy in campaign of MGeneral Scott; and commanding brigade of 2nd and 7th infy in Valley of Mexico: bvt Brig. General "for gallantry and meritorious conduct, in battie of Cerro Gordo" 18 Apr 1847 (Aug 48): bvt Major General" for gallant conduct at Contreras, 20 Aug 1847 (Mar 1851) Commanding military department of upper California, and ex officio provincial Governor 1849, 1850: Colonel 1st infy 31 Jan. 1850 - registrar data

(1790–June 6, 1853) was the seventh military governor of California, serving in 1849, before the territory became a U.S. state. He was born in 1790 in St. Mary's County, Maryland...:

"Appointed to the military service from Maryland as an ensign rifleman January 19, 1812, he was promoted to third lieutenant on March 12 and saw active service at Sacket's Harbor, New York, during the War of 1812. After the evacuation and burning of Fort Madison in November, 1813, there was great alarm in the settlements below; in consequence of which a new post was built on a high promontory of the Mississippi, opposite the middle fork of the Des Moines River; the work of building the post which was named Fort Johnston, was done by the Rangers and some regular troops; W. S. Harney and Bennet Riley were among the officers stationed there. As at Fort Madison, the contractor failed to supply the garrison with needed provision and Fort Johnston was abandoned and burned the spring after it was built.
Under the Act of February 10, 1814, three new regiments of riflemen were organized and Riley's was designated the First; he became a second lieutenant on April 15 of that year. The four regiments were consolidated May 17, 1815 and Bennet Riley served as adjutant from December, 1816 to July, 1817. He had become a first lieutenant the last of March, 1817, and reached the grade of captain August 6, 1818.
On the previous March 16, 1818, Secretary of War, John C. Calhoun, had ordered Col. Thomas A. Smith to establish a permanent post high up the Missouri River at the mouth of the Yellowstone; preparations were made which resulted in the expedition, commanded by Col. Talbot Chambers, getting away from Belle Fontaine Barracks on August 30. The detail was made up of riflemen who traveled in six keel boats under the command of Captains Bennet Riley, Matthew I. Magee and Wyly Martin. After the boats had been towed for about sixty days they arrived at Cow Island (Isle au Vache) eighty miles above Fort Osage. Provisions had given out and ice formed in the river so that further progress was impossible until spring; a group of log houses was built and Captain Martin was left in command when Colonel Chambers returned to Missouri. The post was called Cantonment Martin in honor of the senior captain but it must have been an empty honor since the riflemen were hard put to keep from starving. They relied on game they killed until the arrival of Maj. Stephen H. Long late in July, 1819. Captain Riley was transferred to the Sixth Infantry October 3, 1821 and in 1823 he fought with Lieut. Col. Henry Leavenworth and William H. Ashley in the second battle with the Arikara Indians who had attacked the boat of a trader where thirteen men were killed and others wounded; this fight brought on a conflict with the United States; Riley who led one wing of the expedition was reported as serving with gallantry as he was an adept in campaigning on the plains.
An amusing story, characteristic of the times, was related in the personal recollections of a pioneer, regarding Captain Riley "...who fought with so much bravery all through the Mexican war." He and Captain Thomas F. Smith were descending the Mississippi River in two keel boats, each in command of one hundred men; for company the two officers were riding in the same boat and as she descended the stream they saw a dead tree with the roots embedded in the mud at the bottom of the river. Captain Smith remarked to Captain Riley: "There is a sawyer." To which Riley replied, "I say it's a snag." Captain Smith immediately retorted: "I say it's a sawyer; do you mean to dispute my word?" Riley answered, "And I say it's a snag; do you mean to dispute my word?" Captain Smith directed the non-commissioned officer commanding the vessel, "Round the boat to, sergeant—No man shall dispute my word. . . " The two captains went ashore, and in the presence of the enlisted men under their command, took a shot at each other with pistols; the officers had been imbibing a little and neither was hit by the exchange of shots....According to the historian Edwin L. Sabin12 "Bennet Riley was an illiterate man and I have read the statement that he could not read or write. "He probably picked up a smattering of reading and writing for use in middle life..." The same author describing Kit Carson wrote: "His lack of education did not rank him below a number of officers in those days when Colonel Bennet Riley, of enunciation impeded by a hair lip, prated of his beginnings as an illiterate cobbler."
He led the first military escort along the Santa Fe Trail in 1829.
"From Camp Sabine, August 28, 1837, Riley wrote his friend Senator Lewis F. Linn of Missouri an account of his peregrinations since leaving Missouri. A large part of this LETTER is reproduced as it gives details of this officer's service not otherwise found; it settles the question of his birthplace; discloses his disappointment at non-recognition of his gallantry and the touching reference to his son.
"...I have been removed from Jefferson Barracks to Natchitoches, in this State, from thence to Fort Jesup, from Fort Jesup to this place, and from this place back to Jesup, and from thence to the Caddo Indians, and from thence to New Orleans, and from thence back to this place, where we have remained until this time, but how much longer I am unable to say...I would rather be in Missouri than any other State in the Union that I have been in, not excepting old Virginia, the place of my birth...We have been here nearly two years, and for what purpose I am unable to say, for there has been no invasion or threatened invasion, that I know of. There are no Indians nearer than eighty or one hundred miles of us, and we are fifty or sixty miles from those large planters who have so large a number of negroes that it would require a garrison near to prevent their negroes rising...We have temporary quarters built at this place, which is about two miles and a half from the river Sabine, on a straight line, and about four by the road."
"It is my opinion that we could be of more use to the service if we were on the frontier of Missouri or Arkansas. There we could be a check on the Indians; for if we do not establish a line of posts around that frontier soon, the enormous body of Indians which the government is sending among you will become dissatisfied, and will rise and use you up before we can help you...the sooner it is done, the less it will cost the government, and the less blood will be spilt."
"...two wars have shown us that riflemen are the most efficient troops that ever were employed in our country. Where can you find troops more efficient than...Forsyth's riflemen of the last war with Great Britain? I served with Forsyth's riflemen during the whole of the late war, up to the reduction of the army in 1821, and I have been in the infantry since..."
"I have served my country honestly and faithfully for near twenty-five years, and have commanded detachments, companies, battalions, regiments, and brigades, and have been on some important expeditions, and have had the good fortune to have the approbation of my commanding officer and the government...At the close of the last war, Mr. Dallas, then Secretary of War, promised me the brevet rank of major; but unfortunately he died..."
"I made repeated applications after the war for leave to visit Washington, but without effect until the fall of 1820, which was the first opportunity I had of laying my claims before the President and Secretary of War, which I did, but I was told I was too late by Mr. Monroe and Mr. Calhoun; but they both, if I understood them, agreed that my claim was just."
"Again in 1826, I had my claim before Mr. Adams and Mr. Barbour, and had no better success. I claimed brevets for the following actions: The battle of La Cole's mill—General Wilkinson told me, for my gallant conduct, that he would remember me. In the summer of 1814, on the day the gallant Forsyth fell, I, with fifteen riflemen, led the enemy's force, of about seven or eight hundred strong, into an ambuscade, in such a manner than, if Forsyth had obeyed his orders, not a man of them would have escaped to have told the story; for which General T. A. Smith sent for me, and offered me brevet rank, which I declined. A few weeks after I dispersed a party of the enemy of more than my number, killed their advanced guard, and wounded and took Indian chief by the name of Malaun. He was a celebrated chief; and to show you how much the British thought of him, they asked his body of General Smith, and had it buried in splendid style; for this General Smith sent for me again, and offered me brevet rank again; which I again declined."
"Well, sir, for the battle of Plattsburg I respectfully refer you to Major General Macomb [and also to a letter from Macomb to him written in 1826 on file in War Dept.] For these few battles I was promised brevet rank. Since then, in 1823, at the battle of the Arickarees, General Leavenworth recommended me to be brevetted to a major. Again on the Santa Fe road, August 3, 1829, when I defeated eight hundred Indians with one hundred and fifty, and killed and wounded forty of them; and again defeated them on the 10th of November."
"Sir, if I had received brevets for all of these actions only, I should have been a colonel by brevet, September 11, 1834....I had a talk with General Jackson in 1831...[about brevets]..."
"I am more anxious at this time than I was heretofore, for I wish my son, when he grows up, to see and hear that his father has served his country honestly and faithfully, by gallantry. My services are well known; but I wish my name to be on the records of my country for gallant services;"
"On the 4th of March last, about twelve o'clock, we gave Matty and old Tecumseh twenty-six roarers...
B. Riley, Major United States Army."
"After years as a brevet major, Riley on September 26, 1837, was made a full major and assigned to the Fourth Infantry. A month later he was ordered to join his regiment in Florida. Riley was promoted to lieutenant colonel of the Second Infantry December 1, 1839; within three days all of the field officers of the Fourth regiment were changed by resignation, promotion and death—"a remarkable event, that may not occur once in twenty or thirty years in time of peace."
"During the Seminole War, On June 2, 1840, Riley was brevetted colonel for his bravery and good conduct at the battle of Chokachatta, Florida."
"The most treasured relic of the Second Infantry is a drum major's baton presented to the regiment by Colonel Riley in 1843. On the silver knob was engraved "Noli me tangre"."
"Colonel Riley made a most distinguishable record in the Mexican War; he commanded the Second Infantry under General Scott and the Second Brigade (2d Artillery, 2d, 4th and 5th Infantry and Voltiguers) of General Twiggs division in the valley of Mexico. He was brevetted a brigadier general for gallantry at Cerro Gordo April 18, 1847, and at Contreras he is said to have made a handsome movement with his brigade; Gen. Persifer Frazer Smith in his official report said Riley displayed gallantry, skill and energy; in a charge "he planted his colors upon the farthest works". On August 20, 1847, Riley was awarded the brevet of Major general for gallantry and General Scott assured him, after one of his engagements, that his bravery had secured a victory for the American army. General Scott publicly asserted that much of his success at Monterrey and Cerro Gordo was due to Riley's valor." - Chronicles of Oklahoma Volume 19, No. 3 September, 1941 GENERAL BENNET RILEY Commandant at Fort Gibson and Governor of California By Carolyn Thomas Foreman.

Maryland Resoultions - Resolution of thanks to Lieutenants Alexander H. Cross, Robert Swan, Robert H. Archer and William H. Fitzhugh, of the regiment of Voltigeurs, U. S. army, natives of Maryland.
- Resolution authorising the Governor to procure and present to Brigadier General Bennet Riley, a sword.
He was appointed brevet major general fought at the Chapultepec ("But the troops held their ground and pressed on, until, finally, the castle above having been taken, they entered the Mexican barricade with a portion of the Rifle Regiment."* (Ripley.)") "The third brigade (Col. Riley's) was reviewed and inspected on the plains of Molino del Rey on the 21st ult. By Major Buchanan, Acting Inspector General. It is needless, says the Star, to speak of the perfection of this command when it is known that the 2d Artillery, 2d, 4th and 5th Infantry and Voltiguers compose the command. (Mexico, February 20, 1848. Orders—No. 3.Richmond Whig(citing the Star) 22 March 1848)"*
"He is generally considered one of the ablest brigade commanders in the army during the war with Mexico. After the war he was placed in command of the Department of the Pacific and served as the military governor of California. He died in 1853 in Buffalo, New York. Fort Riley and Riley County in Kansas are named for him."

*NB- It is not clear if this is a reference to the US Regiment of Mounted Riflemen "Brave Rifles" or the US Regiment of Voltigeurs and Foot Riflemen - I suspect the former as throughout the war the US Regiment of Mounted Riflemen was referred to as the "Rifle Regiment" or "Rifles" - nonetheless, neither regiment was under Riley's direct command until at least after the seizure of Mexico City (see Richmond Whig). But in this erroneous contemporary affiliation one can witness how historians have failed to address the true legacies of the US Rifle Regiments - lost and confused legacies indeed!

 Fort Riley, Kansas, an active post, is named in honor of Major General Bennett C. Riley.

Key Sources with unit details:
- The war with Mexico, Volume 1, by Roswell Sabine Ripley, 1849
- The war with Mexico, Volume 2, by Roswell Sabine Ripley, 1849
- El puchero: or, A mixed dish from Mexico, embracing General Scott's campaign, with sketches of military life, in field and camp, of the character of the country, manners and ways of the people, etc, by Richard McSherry, David Holmes Conrad, Lippincott, Grambo & co., 1850
includes Regimental Officer Lists
- Harper's magazine, Volume 11, 1855
 - Mexican War veterans: a complete roster of the regular and volunteer troops, by William Hugh Robarts, 1887
- History of the Mexican War by Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox, 1892
- To Mexico with Scott: letters of Captain E. Kirby Smith to his wife, by Ephraim Kirby Smith Johnston, 1917
Mcintosh, Colonel, pages 46, 52, 54,182, 183, 213
Scott, Major, pages 101, 104, 113, 120, 124, 129, 130, 149, 155, 156, 213
Our First Foreign War, American Heritage Magazine, June 1966, Volume 17, Issue 4
(RG- should be titled "Letters of Barna Upton, 3rd Infantry")
 - Center of Military History Mexican War Published Material
- The Mexican War, 1846-1848, by K. Jack Bauer, 1974
"Much has been written about the Mexican war, but this . . . is the best military history of that conflict. . . . Leading personalities, civilian and military, Mexican and American, are given incisive and fair evaluations...-Journal of American History" 
- The Mexican-American War, 1846-1848 by Philip R. N. Katcher, Gerry Embleton, 1976
‘There never was so fine an American army,...’ 
- The Old West: the Mexican war. by the editors of Time-Life Books, with text by David Nevin, 1978
- The Mexican War 1846-1848, by Douglas V. Meed, 2002
" best short treatment of the Mexican War that I have seen . . . quite remarkable.’ -- David Niven (Author of Meriwether, The Mexican War, Eagle’s Cry etc)"

- Mexican War by the Aztec Club of 1847
- The Mexican-American War and the Media, 1845-1848

- Green Coats and Glory: the United States Regiment of Riflemen, 1808-1821 by John C. Fredriksen, 2000

The "Celebrated" Rifleman - Martin Scott
Born in Vermont
Second Lt 26th infy July 21 Apr and First Lt May 1814: disbanded June 1815. Second Lt Rifle Apr 1818 : First ILt Nov 1819: in 5th infy May 1821 : Captain Aug 1828 : brevet Major "for gallant conduct in battles of Palo Alto Rio de la Palma" 9 May 1846 (Apr 1847): Major 5th infy 29 June 1846: commanded his regiment and brevet Lt colonel "for gallant and meritorious conduct in the several conflicts at Monterey Мехico" 23 Sept 1846 (May 1847): killed 8 Sept 1847 at the head of hie regiment in battle of El Molino del Rey.
- List of officers of the army of the United States from 1779 to 1900 William Henry Powell, 1900
picture from Green Coats and Glory: the United States Regiment of Riflemen, 1808-1821 by John C. Fredriksen, 2000, 
Collection of Bennington Museum, Bennington Vt

"born in Bennington, Vermont, about 1795 ; died near Molino del Rey, Mexico, 8 September, 1847. He was appointed a lieutenant in the army in April, 1814, became captain in the 5th infantry in August, 1828, was brevetted major for gallantry at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, 9 Nay, 1846, and was promoted major on 29 June. He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for services at Monterey, where he led his regiment, and he was killed at its head in the battle of Molino del Rey. Colonel Scott had been famous as a marksman from early youth, and it is of him that the well-known incident is related of the coon that said: " You need not fire, I'll come down." (also attributed to Davy Crockett)" p.438
-Appleton's cyclopædia of American biography, Volume 5 by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske, 1888
served under James S McIntosh - a fellow ex-Rifle Regiment officer - in the 5th Infantry Regiment - see McIntosh profile later in this post - both killed at Molino del Rey

Green Mountain poets edited by Albert J. Sanborn, 1872

"Captain Marcy says in his Hand book for Overland Expeditions I have always observed that those persons who are most familiar with firearms are invariably the most careful in their use That finished sportsman and wonderful shot Captain Martin Scott than whom a more gallant soldier never fought a battle was the most careful man with firearms I ever knew and up to the time that he received his death wound on the bloody field of Molino del Key he never ceased his cautionary advice to young officers on this subject His extended experience and intimate acquaintance with the use of arms had fully impressed him with its importance and no man ever lived whose opinions on this subject should carry greater weight" p. 231
- Hints to riflemen by Horace William Shaler Cleveland, 1864

Thirty Years of Army Life on the Border by Randolph Marcy, 1866
Chapter XIV - Captain Martin Scott
- The Coon Story - The Bear-hunter - The Horserace - Courting Days- Rifle and Pistol Shooting - His Duel - Expeditions with Explorers - Hunting in Texas - Wonderful Dog - "Tally Ho!" - Return Home to Bennington - His Death ..424"
- also an excerpt in Harper's magazine, Volume 33 - Making of America Project pp.442-43

- Over the world: Travels, adventures and achievements by Henry Howe, 1883
Dreadful work - Molino del Rey - Deserters fate - Heroic death of Colonel Martin Scott the famous hunter - Martin Scott and the coon - Martin Scott and the book agent - Chapultepec - General Scott cries for joy - Surrender of Mexico - Peace and crying women - The demons of war - Retires to civil life - Sketch of Sergeant Reeves by the author p. 160
... Heroic death of Colonel Martin Scott, the famous hunter — Martin Scott and

"Among the many noted and remarkable persons who have been prominently connected with Northwestern history Capt Martin Scott was one of the most singular Materials from which to frame a biography of him are very meagre and what few I have are drawn from a variety of sources but are I believe reliable...."
collections of the minnesota historical society. volume iii, 1888, pp. 180-87

Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society Vol III Part 2
Printed by the St Paul Press Company Svo pp 282
This is a valuable addition to the history of the great northwestern region of our Republic The contiibutions to it by General HH Sibley are exceedingly interesting especially his Reminiscences of the Pioneers and Early History of the Territory anil State of Minnesota The volume contains the following papers Fort Snelling Colonel Leavenworth's Expedition to establish it in 1819 by Major Thomas Forsyth Indian Agent Memoir of Jean Baptiste Faribault by General Sibley Memoir of Captain Martin Scott Memoir of Napehshnee doota first male Dakotah convert to Christianity by Kev TS Williamson Memoir of HL Dousman by General Sibley Memoir of Joseph R Brown Memoir of Hon Cyrus Aldrich Memoir of Rev Lucicn Galtier the first Catholic Priest of St Paul by Rev John Ireland Memoir of Hon D Olmsted Reminiscences of the Early Days of Minnesota by General Sibley with a biographical sketch of the Author by the Committee on Publication 

- Game laws in brief and woodcraft magazine, Volume 1 by Charles B. Reynolds, 1899

"In 1837 the First Infantry was withdrawn and part of the Fifth Infantry returned to its former station Among the familiar faces seen about the garrison again was that of a man whose eccentricities ties and personality are closely associated with the life of the fort 157 In reporting the casualties of the battle of Molino del Eey September 8 1847 the general commanding the American forces applied an adjective to only one of the dead The report reads the service mourns the high souled Scott brevet lieutenant colonel 5th infantry 15S This was Martin Scott one of the most human most lovable and most energetic men who ever reviewed troops on the parade ground of Old Fort Snelling Only from July 15 1837 until August 20 1837 was he in command but for many years he was a familiar figure around the barracks and in the surrounding country Hunting was his favorite pastime and many a time the prairie rang with the yelping of the twenty or twenty five dogs which he kept under the care of a special negro servant at the fort His deadly aim was known to all An army officer who insulted him was severely wounded in a duel he often played the part of William Tell by shooting with his pistol through an apple placed upon the head of his negro and if credence is to be given to the stories which are told even the animals were aware that from him there was no escape A coon sitting high on a tree was shot at by several hunters in succession but still remained in its position Captain Scott came along and took aim whereupon the coon asked Who is that The reply was My name is Scott Scott what Scott continued the coon Captain Martin Scott Are you Captain Martin Scott There was a pause before the voice in the tree top continued Then hold on don t shoot I may as well come down 15 Martin Scott was born in Bennington Vermont on January 17 1788 His family was extremely poor but because of his freedom from army vices gambling and drinking he was able in later years to do them many favors His kindness was equalled only by his bravery For gallant conduct during the Mexican War he received several promotions and held a commission as lieutenant colonel when he met death leading his regiment in the battle of Mo lino del Key 160 A newspaper correspondent who went over the field of battle saw a gray headed soldier spreading the blanket over the corpse of a fallen comrade I rode up to him wrote the reporter to his newspaper and asked him whether that was an officer He looked up and every lineament of his face betokening the greatest grief replied you never asked a question sir more easily answered it is an officer I then asked him who he was He again replied The best soldier of the 5th infantry sir I then alighted from my horse and uncovering the face found it was Col Martin Scott As I again covered the face the soldier continued without apparently addressing himself to any person in particular They have killed him they will be paid for this if it had only been me I have served with him almost four enlistments but what will his poor family say And as he concluded thus the tears coursed down his furrowed cheeks and the swelling of his bosom showed how deeply he was affected by the death of his veteran and gallant commander." pp.59-62
Old Fort Snelling by Marcus L. Hansen, 1918
- (2008)

" I was writing a letter to you in my tent, when, in common with the other officers of the regiment, I was summoned to Major Scott's tent. Scott was swelling with importance and had borrowed a candle from the adjutant, being too poor to purchase. He held in his hand a note and commenced:
" Are you all here ? " then began reading the note:
" Major Scott, Sir: You " — a pause.
" Where is Captain Ruggles ? Gentlemen, pay attention, we shall catch it before tomorrow night!" Myself: " What ! the yellow fever ? " Major Scott: " We are to go on desperate service." And so after beginning and stopping twenty times he finally managed to read a brief note from General Worth ordering him with the regiment to report to him on the morning of the eighth at daylight in the plaza, each one carrying in his haversack five days' provisions and his greatcoat on his back. I asked Scott if he knew where we were going. " He thought he did, we would all find out before tomorrow night but some would not live to tell of it if he led them ! " etc., intimating that we were going on desperate service for which we were selected in consequence of his superior abilities, etc. I finally remarked that I thought he knew nothing about it, and that I would bet we were going after horses and mules, — in consequence of his peculiar fitness." pp. 129-130
- To Mexico with Scott: letters of Captain E. Kirby Smith to his wife, by Ephraim Kirby Smith Johnston, 1917
Scott, Major, pages 101, 104, 113, 120, 124, 129, 130, 149, 155, 156, 213

"Lieut Col Martin Scott a native of Bennington.."
- Vermont: the Green mountain state, Volume 3 by Walter Hill Crockett, 1921

"a version of the the tale of Captain Martin Scott and the treed raccoon, which he he learned on the island  at Mackinaw"
- Two Items of Midwest Folklore Noted by William Cullen Bryant, 1956

Midwest Folklore 6 (1956): 141-146
 - A Shovel of Stars: The Making of the American West - 1800 to the Present by Ted Morgan, 1996 - citing Minnesota Historical Collections Vol 3

and many, many other secondary and repetitious sources - search google books using "Martin Scott" + 5th Infantry or + Bennington, Vermont etc

Fort Martin Scott, Texas
"The Eighth Military Department renamed the camp in December 1849 for Maj. Martin Scott (Fifth United States Infantry), who was killed at the battle of Molina del Rey in 1847. Fort Martin Scott served as a first line of defense, keeping the peace and minimizing possible friction caused by an active trade between the Comanches and German settlers...."

The "Transcendent Rifleman" - James Simmons McIntosh
(Photo as originally submitted the Historical Marker Database by Mike Stroud)   

Bennett Riley is indeed a pivotal figure but I sense he would smile down upon me for at last discovering and connecting the story of his fellow officer in arms J S McIntosh! In researching various Rifle Regiment officers from the 1808-1821 period, the story of one of its junior officers, James Simmons McIntosh, finally? came to my attention and struck me as the one most compelling to add to and conclude the "Rifle Regiment saga."
In a 35 year career, this officer distinguished himself in combat in two wars. He first served with the US Regiment of Riflemen at the outset of the war in 1812, continued on when it became the 1st Rifle Regiment in 1814. During which he distinguished himself in two noteworthy, singular "Rifle victories" in the War of 1812 - Sandy Creek and Black Rock. For his actions in these battles alone he was undoubtedly retained and promoted to Captain in the consolidated and truly elite postwar Rifle Regiment when it journeyed west. He continued in service after the Rifle's disbandment in 1821; eventually serving with the 4th Infantry and then 5th Infantry - culminating as commander of the 5th Infantry Regiment and as a Brigade Commander in the Mexican War. One might wonder, however, if the old Rifle Regiment had been kept intact or again expanded into several wartime "Rifle Regiments" - what honors his (or Riley's) leadership would have enabled? As it was, he earned his Regular Army heroes rest; dying from mortal wounds received in close action at Molino Del Rey at the head of his regiment. One of his son Leonidas (1824-1857) connects him with the elite Voltigeur and Foot Riflemen Regiment also of the war....Leonidas  would die in Nicaragua with Walker's "Filibuster" Expedition having been a Major of the 2nd Battalion Light Infantry.

McIntosh, James S.
Born In Ga. Appointed from Ga.  2nd Lieut. Rifle Reg., 13 Nov., 1812. 1st Lieut., 31 Dec, 1813. Disbanded 15 June, 1815. Reinstated 2 Dec, 1815. Capt., 8 March, 1817. Trans, to Ord., 11 Sept., 1818. Trans, to 4th Inf.. 1 June, 1821. MaJ. 7th Inf., 21 Sept., 1836. Lieut. Col. 5th Inf., 1 July, 1839. Died 26 Sept.. 1847, of wounds received In Battle of Molino del Rey, Мех. Bvt. Maj., 8 March, 1827, for ten years' faithful service in one grade. Bvt. Col., 9 May, 1846, for gallant and distinguished service In the Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma.
- List of officers of the army of the United States from 1779 to 1900 William Henry Powell, 1900

J. S. McIntosh (GA)- 1st Rifle Regiment - postwar Rifle Regiment
Second Lt Rifle. 13 Nov. 1812: First Lt Dec., 1813: distinguished under Maj. Appling at Sandy Creek : wounded under Maj. L. Morgan, in affair near Black Rock 3 Aug. 1814: retained, Dec., 1815, in Rifle. : Capt Mar., 1817 : transferred Sept, 1818, to Ordnance: in 4th infy May 1821 : bvt Major 'ten yrs. faithful service 8 Mar, 1827: Major 7th infy 21 Sept. 1836: Lt colonel 5th infy 1 July, 1839: bvt Colonel "for gallantry and distinguished service in battles of Palo Alto and Rio de la Palma" 9 May, 1846 (Aug 1846) in which he was dangerously wounded: commanded his brigade in Worth's division and distinguished, in battle of Churubusco: commanding a brigade and distinguishing in the storming of Él Molino, 8 Sept 47, in which again severely wounded and died of his wounds 26 Sept 1847. - register data

Savannah in Chatham County, Georgia — The American South (South Atlantic)
Col. James S. McIntosh (1784-1847)

Marker Erected 1954 by Georgia Historical Commission. (Marker Number 025-32.)
"Inscription. James S. McIntosh achieved an immortal record of gallantry in the War of 1812 and in the War with Mexico. In 1814 he saw considerable action on the Canadian border, he was severely wounded at Buffalo. In the Mexican War, Col. McIntosh was desperately wounded by bayonets at Resaca de la Palma in 1846. When a fellow officer, who found him on the field, asked if he might be of any service. McIntosh replied, “Yes, give me some water and show me my regiment.” Returning to combat the following year despite his wounds and advanced years, the brave Georgian was mortally wounded while leading his brigade at the bloody storming of El Molino del Rey, September 8, 1847. His remains were brought home by the State of Georgia in 1848 and were reinterred in the McIntosh vault with military honors.
A native of Liberty County, McIntosh was one of the “fighting McIntoshes” who illustrated their country on many battle - fields. He was the great nephew of Lachian McIntosh and his father was the Revolutionary hero, John McIntosh, who when the British demanded the surrender of Fort Morris at Sunbury sent back the defiant answer: “Come and take it.” Col. James S. McIntosh’s son, James McQueen McIntosh, became a general in the Confederate Army and was killed in Arkansas while another son, John Baillie McIntosh, served the Union cause well, losing a leg at Winchester." - Craig Swain was the editor who published this page, photos by Mike Stroud

additional narratives:

"James Simmons McIntosh 
THE McINTOSH CLAN headed by its chief John Moore McIntosh came to Georgia with General Oglethorpe From that time to the present in peace and war the McIntosh family has been one of the most notable in the State and in every war waged by our country both in the army and navy they have served as gallant soldiers and sailors Col John S McIntosh fourth son of Col John McIntosh one of the Revolutionary officers of the family was born in Liberty county the seat of the McIntosh family June 19 1787 He inherited the military tastes of the family and when the War of 1812 broke out entered the army as a lieutenant and was attached to a rifle regiment in which he saw hard service on the northern frontier and in Canada In May 1814 a detachment of his regiment under command of Major Daniel Appling another Georgian was detailed as a guard for a number of supply boats under command of Captain Woolsey of the navy which were going from Oswego to supply certain new vessels of war then being built at Sack ett's Harbor After leaving Oswego they entered Sandy Creek with the intention of landing the supplies which were then to be conveyed overland to Sackctt's Harbor Sir James Yeo the British commander of the lake fleet dispatched several gunboats and cutters to capture these stores and the escort The British entered the creek and disembarked a body of marines and sailors to carry out the orders of their commander Major Appling's small detachment of riflemen learning of the approach of the enemy concealed themselves in the woods and as soon as they were sufficiently near poured into them such a deadly fire that in a few minutes the whole were killed wounded or prisoners not a man escaped nor a gunboat This complete defeat led the British commander to raise the blockade Major Appling won great recognition for his conduct in this matter and the Legislature of Georgia compli miented Lieutenant McIntosh with a sword In another combat with the enemy at Buffalo he received a severe wound On his recovery he married a Xew York lady and rejoined the army becoming an officer in the regulars At the close of that war he was employed in different sections served with General Jackson throughout the Indian War and for a considerable time commanded the post at Tampa Fla He was transferred from there to Mobile and later to the command of Fort Mitchell in Georgia during the exciting controversy with the Federal government This was a situation of great delicacy for a native Georgian but he contrived to obey his orders without giving offense to his native State He was then sent west of the Mississippi River and stationed for a time at Fort Gibson Ark then transferred to Prairie DuChien Wis He was then in command of Fort Winnebago Wis Fort Gratiot Mich and finally Detroit Mich from which place he was ordered to Texas in anticipation of trouble with Mexico He arrived at Corpus Christi in October 1845 and reported to General Taylor By this time ha had risen to the rank of a Colonel in the regular army and on the advance to the Rio Grande was in command of a brigade At the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma on the 8th and 9th of May 1846 he distinguished himself receiving in the first named battle at the head of one regiment a charge of fifteen hundred lancers and repulsing them with great slaughter In the next day's battle the struggle was more desperate and in charging the Mexican lines his horse was killed in the chapparal and a numlier of ambushed Mexicans sprang upon him He was pinned to the ground with bayonets one going through and breaking his left arm and another thrusting him in the mouth the bayonet passing through his neck and coming out behind the ear Leaving him for dead the Mexicans ran Dragging himself forward in this dreadful condition he met Captain Duncan of the artillery who not noticing his ghastly wounds at first glance asked him for support The Colonel replied with great difficulty that he would give him the support and asked for some water Exhausted from loss of blood he soon fell At first his recovery looked hopeless but they sent him for a brief stay in Georgia and a few months with his children in New York and though yet feeble he applied for service in the war still raging in Mexico On his way back to the seat of war he visited Savannah where his fellow citizeus presented him with a handsome sword Arriving at Vera Cruz he was placed in command of a baggage train with a large amount of money to pay the army and started for the city of Mexico Attacked by guerrillas he held his ground until reinforced by General Cadwallader from Vera Cruz After a tedious march with many skirmishes he reached the headquarters of the army and assumed command of the Fifth Infantry a regiment which loved him as a father He led his regiment in the battles of Contreras and Cherubusco and at the murderous combat of Molino del Rey in which last struggle he was mortally wounded while at the head of his regiment He survived his wounds several weeks and died in the city of Mexico deeply regretted The commanding general of division in the hard fought battle in which Colonel McIntosh fell said In my official reports it has been among my most pleasing and grateful duties to do full justice to an officer and soldier than whom none not one is left of higher gallantry or patriotism He died as he lived the true hearted friend the courteous gentleman the gallant soldier and patriot The Legislature of Georgia ordered his remains removed from Mexico to his native State and the citizens of Savannah followed them to their last resting place in the tomb of his venerated kinsman Major General Lachlan McIntosh on March 18 1848 Colonel McIntosh was a soldierly man of middle size strong and active of fair complexion quick of temper taciturn with strangers kind and cheerful with his friends Of his sixty years of life thirty five were given to the military service of his country He left four sons and one daughter One of his sons James McQueen McIntosh was a captain in the regular army at the beginning of the Civil War He resigned his commission tendered his services to the Confederacy was commissioned brigadier general and fell at the battle of Pea Ridge Ark in 1862 while gallantly leading his brigade Another son John Baillie Mclntosh entered the old navy served a few years and resigned In 1861 he went with the Union served during the entire war with distinction rising to the rank of brigade commander Remained in regular army after the war and retired in 1870 with rank of brigadier general."
- Men of mark in Georgia:.... Volume 2 by William J. Northen
pp. 69-72

"On another side M'Intosh with the 8th made a similar attack on a party of ensconced behind the chaparral. This was thick that the men could not force their through it. M'Intosh alone, carried forward by his horse, penetrated to the Mexican side. He was instantly surrounded by a host of foes One man thrust his bayonet through his mouth till it came out below his ear; another ran him through the arm and a third pinned him to the earth with a thrust through the hip. At that moment an attack from another side diverted the attention of his assailants. Duncan's battery had crossed the ravine and threatened them in flank. M'Intosh rose from ground, and Duncan without looking at him, called upon him for support. The wounded man could barely articulate; he tried to say, "Show me my regiment and I will give the support you need."..."p. 175
Harper's magazine, Volume 11, 1855, Important American periodical dating back to 1850.

Col. James Simmons McIntosh's official report concerning the battle of August 20 1847 - Battle of Contreras and Churubusco Official Reports:
"At Molino del Rey was supposed to be a cannon foundry, and it was thought by General Scott that a large quantity of powder was stored there. General Worth was ordered to make the attack, carry the enemy's lines, and destroy the ordnance works and return to his former position. To carry out this order General Worth directed General John Garland's brigade to be posted on the right with two pieces of Simon H. Drum's battery, so as to prevent re-enforcements from Chapultepec, and to be in position to support, if necessary, the assaulting forces; the guns of Captain Benjamin Hugér to be placed on the eminence to Garland's right and rear; a storming party of some five hundred picked men under Brevet Major George Wright, Eighth Infantry, to take post near and to the right of Hugér's battering guns, to attack the battery in the center of the enemy's lines; Clarke's brigade under Colonel James S. McIntosh and Captain James Duncan's battery opposite the enemy's right to support the assaulting column; Cadwallader to be held in reserve; and Major Edwin V. Sumner with his cavalry to be posted on the extreme left. Some changes were made in the disposition of the Mexican forces. Early on the morning of the 8th Hugér with two 24-pounders opened fire, and the assaulting column under Major Wright advanced under a heavy fire of grapeshot from the Mexican center and left. Undismayed, they pushed forward now under fire of musketry, captured a battery, and turned it upon the enemy, who fled in confusion. They were soon re-enforced, and rallied and reopened fire not only from their lines but from the housetops and walls. The storming party was driven back, but Duncan's battery opening fire at this time checked the Mexican advance. The light battalion of Colonel Charles F. Smith, now under command of Captain Edmund Kirby Smith, Fifth Infantry, moved forward, supported by a part of Cadwallader's brigade, and this was followed by a forward movement of Garland's brigade and Drum's battery. This movement was irresistible, and the Mexicans fell back, bravely contesting every inch of ground. Pending the fire of Duncan's battery, one section of the battery, under Lieutenant Henry J. Hunt, opened fire on the enemy's lines between the Casta Mata and Molino del Rey. McIntosh fought in close quarters, and charged and drove the enemy in his front, but received three wounds, one of which proved mortal. General Alvarez, commanding the Mexican cavalry, was held in check by the voltigeur regiment under command of Major E.V. Sumner, and Duncan's battery. The fight was continued obstinately and bravely by the Mexicans from the roofs of houses. The main force of the enemy, having been driven toward Chapultepec, were rallied by General Peña Y. Barragan, and made an advance. Captain Drum was ordered forward, and with a captured six-pounder cleared the road. The battle lasted for more than two hours and was hotly contested by the Mexicans. Those who escaped death or capture retreated to Chapultepec, leaving General Worth in full possession of their lines. Worth's loss was one hundred and sixteen killed and six hundred and seventy-one wounded, a total of seven hundred and eighty-seven."
- General Scott - General Marcus J. Wright, in Great Commanders, 1893 -

Portrait of James Simmons McIntosh, Colonel of the 5th United States Infantry
Col. James Simmons McIntosh, U. S. A. (1787-1847) son of Lieut. Col. John McIntosh, (1755-1826) commandant of Fort Morris when the British demanded its surrender, and he replied, "Come and take it." He displayed great bravery at Briar Creek, 1779, where he was wounded and taken prisoner - born and died in McIntosh county, Ga; grandson of William McIntosh (1726-96), served in the Continental Army and was delegate to the first Provincial Congress at Savannah, 1775. He was born in Scotland; died in Darien, Ga. His brother Lachlan was a distinguished brigadier general.
-Lineage Book By Daughters of the American Revolution

"Colonel McIntosh arrived with the command yesterday; I was glad to him. He appears in fine health." p.182
"Colonel McIntosh is before a Court of Inquiry on his conduct while commanding the escort and train from Vera Cruz to the National Bridge. The General has refused to give him the command of a brigade and as he has not assumed that of his regiment, he is just at present nobody. Poor old man he should never have been permitted to come here." p. 183-184 (RG - he was reinstated and led his regiment and then brigade)
"Colonel Clarke was wounded slightly in the early part of the action, McIntosh1 succeeding to the command of the brigade and Martin Scott2 to that of the regiment (5th Infantry). It was much broken and I am told  never acted in a body after Scott took the command. There seems to be much ill feeling existing hardly a shadow of harmony left in the regiment....In truth there is much discord all are quarreling about the honors and I am thankful that I am detached* from the regiment and have nothing to do with their envious misunderstandings I keep my own counsel and listen to all their complaints...
fn -
1 Colonel Mcintosh killed at Molino del Rey September 8 1847...
2 Colonel Martin Scott killed at Molino del Rey."
(RG- *Captain Ephraim Kirby Smith's  company of the 5th Regt, was detached as brigade skirmishes in a light battalion commanded by Captain C.F Smith. He would also be killed at Molino del Rey and his letters later published in 1917 by his daughter.) 
- To Mexico with Scott: letters of Captain E. Kirby Smith to his wife, by Ephraim Kirby Smith Johnston
Mcintosh, Colonel, pages 46, 52, 54,182, 183, 213

Fort McIntosh (TX) was established in early 1849 as one of a chain of border forts. The Mexican War has just ended and Laredo, Texas was an easy crossing point for Mexicans and Indians determined to raid into the U.S. Originally named Camp Crawford, the fort was renamed to Fort McIntosh in 1850 to honor Lieutenant Colonel James Simmons McIntosh, who had been killed at the Mexican War Battle of Molino del Rey. -

"2.—Col. James Simmons Mcintosh, U. S. Army, fourth son, born in Liberty County, Georgia, 19th June, 1787. He served in the army during the War of 1812, and was severely wounded at Buffalo and left for dead on the field. He served throughout the Seminole War, in Florida, and in the war with Mexico; was desperately wounded at Resaca de la Palma, on the Rio Grande, and finally was mortally wounded at El Molino del Rey, and died in the City of Mexico, September 26th, 1847. He m. 29th December, 1815, Mrs. Eliza Shumater, d. 1833 (*" Matthews), and had issue :
I.Leonidas Mcintosh, b. 1824, d. 1857, in Nicaragua. He was an officer in the American Army, during the war with Mexico.
II.—Brig. Gen. James Mcintosh, b. 1828. He was first an officer in the U. S. Army, and afterwards a Brigadier-General in the C. S. Army, and was killed in the battle at Pea Ridge, in 1862. Issue; one child.
III.—Bvt. Maj. Gen. John Baillie Mcintosh, of New Brunswick, New Jersey, b. 6th June, 1829. He entered the U. S. Navy in 1848, resigned in 1850, and at the breaking out of the Civil War, he entered theU. S. Army, as second Lieutenant in the Fifth U. S. Cavalry, rose to the rank of a Brigadier-General and was brevetted a MajorGeneral in the U. S. Army. He was wounded while leading an attack on the enemy at the battle of Winchester, in September, 1864, losing a leg. In 1869, he was sent to California as Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and in 1870, was placed on the retired list of the army with the rank of Brigadier-General. He m. Amelia Stout, of New Brunswick, and had issue :
     1.—Mrs. L. L. Kellogg, of New York City.
     2.—Amelia Mcintosh, of New Brunswick."
- Americans of royal descent, ed. by C.H. Browning - google book - p. 144

Lamb's biographical dictionary of the United States, Volume 5 By John Howard Brown
beginning p.253

"McINTOSH, James McQueen, soldier, was born at Tampa, Fla., in 1828; son of Col. James Simmons McIntosh (q. v.). He was graduated from the U.S. Military academy and brevetted 2d lieutenant, 1st infantry, July 1, 1849. He served on frontier duty at Fort Duncan, Texas, and in escorting Col. Albert Sidney Johnston's topographical party, 1849-52 ; was promoted 2d lieutenant in the 8th infantry. May 15, 1851 ; served at Fort Chadbourne, Fort Clark, Fort Bliss and in the escort of the commanding general of the department of Texas, 1852-55. He was transferred from Fort Bliss to Fort Leavenworth, Kan., 1855 ; was promoted 1st lieutenant, 1st cavalry, March 5, 1855 ; served in the Sioux expedition and in quelling the Kansas disturbances, 1855-56, and on recruiting service, 1856-57. He was promoted captain of the 1st cavalry, Jan. 16, 1857 ; participated in the Cheyenne expedition, and in the combat with the Indians at Solomon's Fork, July 29, 1857. He was stationed at Fort Riley, Kan., in 1858, and ordered to Fort Arbuckle, Ind. Ty.. to which he marched by the way of Fort Kearny, Neb. He was ordered to Fort Cobb, Ind. Ty., in 1859, and participated in the Kiowa and Comanche expeditions in 1860. He was in garrison at Fort Jefferson, Mo., in 1860 ; on frontier duty at Fort Smith, Ark., 1860-61. and on leave of absence in 1861. He resigned from the U.S. army, May 7, 1861, and joined the Confederate forces in Missouri as colonel of the 2d Arkansas mounted riflemen and was attached to McCulloch's brigade at the battle of Wilson's Creek, Aug. 10, 1861. He was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general and commanded the cavalry brigade of McCulloch's division, made up of Arkansas and Texas troops, in the battle of Pea Ridge, March 7, 1862, and he fell with the commander of his division while leading in the assault on Osterhaus's division, supported by two batteries. He died on the battle-field of Pea Ridge (Elkhorn Tavern). March 7, 1862.

McINTOSH, James Simmons, soldier, was born in Liberty county, Ga., June 19, 1787; son of Gen. John (q. v.) and Sarah (Swinton) McIntosh. Ho was appointed from Georgia 2d lieutenant in a rifle regiment Nov. 13,1812 ; was promoted 1st lieutenant, Dec. 21, 1813, and served in the Creek war, being seriously wounded at Black Rock in 1814. His regiment was disbanded June 15. 1815, and he was reinstated in the U.S. army Dec. 2, 1815. He was promoted captain March 8, 1817 : was transferred to the ordnance department, Sept. 11, 1818, and to the 4th infantry June 1, 1821. He was promoted major and transferred to the 7th infantry, Sept. 21, 1836, and lieutenant-colonel, and transferred to the 5th infantry, July 1, 1839. In the Mexican war he was in the battle of Palo Alto; was severely wounded at Resaca de la Palma ; commanded a brigade in the valley of Mexico, and was mortally wounded at the attack on Molino del Rey while leading his men. He was brevetted major March 8. 1827, for ten years' faithful service in one grade, and colonel May 9, 1846, for gallant and distinguished service at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palmu. He died in the city of Mexico, Sept. 26, 1847.

McINTOSH, John Baillie, soldier, was born at Tampa, Fla., June 6, 1829; son of Col. James Simmons McIntosh, U.S.A. (q. v.). He attended school at Lawrenceville, N.J., and at Sing Sing, N.Y. He was warranted midshipman in the U.S. navy, April 27. 1848, and resigned, May 24, 1850. At the outbreak of the civil war he entered the U.S. army, was appointed 2d lieutenant, 2d cavalry, June 8, 1861, and transferred to the 5th cavalry, Aug. 3, 1861. He served in the Shenandoah valley and in the defences of Washington, D.C., until March, 1862, and was promoted 1st lieutenant, 5th U.S. cavalry, June 27, 1862. He engaged in the operations of the Army of the Potomac on the peninsula, 1862. and was brevetted major Aug. 5, 1862, for gallant and meritorious services in the battle of White Oak Swamp. He was also with McClellan at South Mountain and Antietam. He was given command of the 3d Pennsylvania cavalry, Nov. 15, 1862, and commanded the 2d brigade, 2d division. Stoueman's cavalry corps, in the Chancellorsville campaign. He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, July 3. 1883, for gallant and meritorious services in the battle of Gettysburg, where he commanded the 1st brigade, 2d division, Pleasanton's cavalry corps.
He was severely injured by a fall of his horse in September, 1863, and was promoted captain of the 5th U.S. cavalry, Dec. 7, 1863. In Grant's campaign against Richmond he commanded the 1st brigade, Wilson's 3d division, Sheridan's corps, which he led in Sheridan's raid at Trevilion station, May and June. 1864, including the battle of Ashland, June 1, 1864, for which he was brevetted colonel U.S.A. and made brigadier general U.S.V. At the battle of Opequon, or Winchester. Sept. 19, 1864, he lost his leg. and on his recovery was placed on court-martial duty. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers March 13, 1865, for gallantry and good management at Opequon ; brigadier-general U.S.A. for gallantry at Winchester, and major-general U.S.A. for gallant and meritorious services in the fielt\ during the war. He was mustered out of the volunteer service April 30, 1866. and promoted lieutenant-colonel and transferred to the 42d U.S. infantry, July 28, 1866. He was governor of the Soldiers' Home. Washington, D.C., 1868-69 ; served as a member of the retiring board of New York city, and was retired with the rank of brigadier-general July 30, 1870. He died in New Brunswick, N.J., June 29, 1888."

- full bio for John at -  Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: a political, social, and military David Stephen Heidler, Jeanne T. Heidler, David J. Coles

Leonidas McIntosh - bio timeline sketch -
- attended school at Nazareth hall (Moravian Boarding School) at Nazareth Northampton co Pa  class of 1836 - brothers James M. and John B. McIntosh were class of 1837, brother? William A. McIntosh was class of 1839-  see A history of Nazareth hall, from 1755 to 1855:
- vignettes on John p. 24, James (death of) pp. 57-58,
- John's speech given at Nazareth Hall p.114 (at second link above)
" in History of the Moravian Church by Joseph Edmond Hutton (born 1868), it is written: At Nazareth the Brethren had a school for boys, known as "Nazareth Hall." If this school never served any other purpose, it certainly taught some rising Americans the value of order and discipline. At meals the boys had to sit in perfect silence; and when they wished to indicate their wants, they did so, not by using their tongues, but by holding up the hand or so many fingers. The school was divided into "rooms"; each "room" contained only fifteen or eighteen pupils; these pupils were under the constant supervision of a master; and this master, who was generally a theological scholar, was the companion and spiritual adviser of his charges." - And in History of the Moravian Church by Joseph Edmond Hutton
- officer in Mexican War - 1847-48 - Lieutenant and later Captain with the Voltigeur and Foot Riflemen Regiment in the Mexican War:
- (Leonidas McIntosh) as a special agent to Brazil in 1849 he filed a report - Record of the Department of State, Communications from special agents, 1794-1906 -
see also  Executive agents in American foreign relations‎ - Page 832
- miscellaneous documents‎ - Page 151 house of representatives - 1853...Leonidas McIntosh: For services as assistant clerk of House of Representatives, under resolutions of the House of 2d September, 1850, and 22d December, at
-THE WASHINGTON AND GEORGETOWN DIRECTORY‎ - Page 39 1853... Leonidas Mcintosh, US Hotel
- In May 1856, Leonidas Mclntosh was appointed Major of the 2d Battalion Light Infantry "Nicaraguan Army". see Walker's Expedition to Nicaragua: A History of the Central American War; By William Vincent Wells, 1856 p.252.
- At its height this army numbered possibly 1,200 Americans. According to impartial author Daniel Lucas in 1896 "the impression that Walker's ranks were recruited mainly from the Southern States. No conception could be more erroneous. Among his officers many were English and German, such as Henningsen, Doubleday, Schwartz, and Swingle. Still more were northern, such as the gallant Anderson, the feeble Lockridge, Dolan, and many others. Two States supplied beyond question the majority of his private recruits—New York and California. These were both free States." see Nicaragua: War of the Filibusters By Daniel Bedinger Lucas, 1896 [The Filibusters organizationl unit names included Rifle, Voltigeur, Light and Rangers - RG]
- In 1856, a Lieutenant Colonel Leonidas McIntosh was associated with the exploits of the infamous filibuster and "illegal" President of Nicaragua William Walker (TN); apparently as Commandant of the town of Masaya, McIntosh was involved or may have ordered the execution of 4 young Nicaraguans - exact role undetermined from translation of website, which references Historical Complete Works of Masaya historian Jerome Perez Marenco and cites "The War in Nicaragua, written by William Walker" (page No. 277)-
Walker made effective use of the 1841 Mountain Howitzer - the Voltigeurs artillery piece and something McIntosh would likely have been experienced with - see Bull Pup:The 1841 Mountain Howitzer by Steven Grizzell
 "New comers however began to arrive to take place of those cut off by battle and disease On morning of the 21st of April (1856) the steamer arrived Granada with about two hundred men in charge General Hornsby who had been absent on business the United States As the Americans had been reorganized after the 13th in two battalions one rifle the other light infantry the new recruits were formed into a second infantry battalion with Leonidas Mclntosh as major and James Walker and James Mullen as captains Upward of twenty men had come at their own expense to Granada and they were enlisted for four months and put into the rangers under Captain Davenport This addition to the numbers of the army course re animated the old troops for some of them considering the services they had seen might with propriety be called old troops and after the arrival of the new men all were as eager as ever to march against the enemy at Rivas .....In the beginning of September 1856 the army of Nicaragua was organized in two battalions of Rifles two of Light Infantry one of Rangers and a small company of Artillery The First Rifles was the fullest as well as the best corps of the army and it scarcely mustered two hundred effective men The Second Rifles was a mere shadow of a battalion and its discipline was almost entirely neglected The Light Infantry battalions were larger than the Second Rifles and some companies ot these as for example the company of Capt Henry ot the Second Infantry were in good order and condition The Rangers consisted of three small companies under the command of Major Waters and were capable of effective service Capt Schwartz with a few artillerymen had shown capacity for organizing his corps and possessed knowledge in his profession he having served for some time as an artillery officer in Baden during the revolutionary troubles of 1848 The whole effective force scarcely amounted to eight hundred men. Gen Hornsby was in command of the Meridional Department having his headquarters sometimes at San Jorge sometimes at Rivas and sometimes at San Juan del Sur He had with him some companies of the First Infantry and the artillery squad it could scarcely be called a company of Capt Schwartz The First Rifles were at Granada while the Second Rifles under Lieut Col McDonald were at Tipitapa The Second Infantry were at Masaya and in the absence of Col Jaquess it was commanded by Lieut Col Mclntosh. Capt Dolan had been in command of a company of Rifles at Managua but about the middle of September Major Waters was sent thither with his Rangers The principal depot of commissary quartermaster and ordnance stores and all the workshops of the army were at Granada The San Juan river was guarded by two companies of infantry and Lieut Col Rudler was placed in charge of that frontier....Major Waters watched closely the advance of the Allies and by the firm front he showed at Managua delayed them for several days on the road between that place and Leon When however Belloso approached within a few miles of Managua Waters received orders to fall back to Masaya At the latter place Lieutenant Colonel Mclntosh was commanding and the garrison consisted of about two hundred and fifty men these had been increased in numbers though not much in strength by the Second Rifles from Tipitapa Subsistence for many....The commanding officer Lieutenant Colonel Mclntosh was sadly deficient both in knowledge and force of character and the effect of his irresolution was such that it was clear the force at Masaya could not be depended on for holding the town against the advancing enemy. After halting a short time at Managua Belloso continued to advance and at Nindiri a league from Ma saya he was joined by Martinez and his followers from Chontales and Matagalpa thus swelling the allied force to twenty two or twenty three hundred men The moral condition of the command at Masaya was such that Mclntosh received orders to retire on Granada and the state of his men may be judged from the manner in which they left Masaya Such was the haste and confusion....Mclntosh might have been deliberate even slow in his movement with entire safety for Belloso did not enter Masaya for some hours after it was abandoned by the Americans...  "
- The War in Nicaragua by William Walker, published 1860
p. 207, pp.281-282, 288
see also:
- With Walker in Nicaragua: or, Reminiscences of an officer of the American by James Carl Jamison, 1909
-  Nicaragua: War of the Filibusters By Daniel Bedinger Lucas, 1896
- Reminiscences of the "filibuster" war in Nicaragua by Charles William Doubleday, 1886

- ironically Leonidas McIntosh' own relation "Commodore James McKay Mcintosh"  in command of the Home Squadron was cautioned on November 17 (1858) by Secretary of the Navy Toucey to be vigilant and intercept any unlawful expedition headed for Nicaragua To avoid repetition of the Paulding affair Mcintosh was ordered to interfere only at sea You will not do this within any harbor nor land any part of your forces for the purpose." see Proceedings, Volume 44, Part 2 - 1918  by United States Naval Institute - The Navy and Filibustering in the Fifties 
- What motivated Leonidas McIntosh to "filibuster" with Walker and forfeit his life in Nicaragua in 1857?
From author Robert May comes a recent definitive look at the Filibuster phenomenon and motivation, which enables us to see that McIntosh, an army veteran, was not alone in his ambitions:
Quoting from May's "Young American Males and Filibustering in the Age of Manifest Destiny" - pdf available online:
"To antebellum males coming of age, filibustering seemed less bizarre than it does to the modern mind. For one thing, longstanding American traditions of geographical and social mobility, heightened by the transportation revolution of the early nineteenth century, facilitated filibustering. Accustomed to changing home and occupation, young American males found it easy to regard filibustering as just another move. The violent traditions and martial spirit of the United States fostered filibustering. Since colonial times Americans had been in the habit of resorting to arms. Antebellum youths, particularly rural youths, were accustomed to the use of muskets and rifles. And young Americans could not help but absorb the lessons of their country's history of subjugating and exploiting darker-skinned peoples in the name of progress. Many Americans simply assumed that the superiority of their race and governmental institutions gave them the moral right to filibuster abroad...Similarly, a man seeking a spot in "any organised set of U.S. citizens" invading Cuba rationalized, "What business have a set of Transatlantic degenerate don sons of bitches as the inhabit[ant]s of old Spain to rule such a garden spot[?]"7...But more than history and tradition nudged young American men into filibuster expeditions. The pre-Civil War period brought rapid modernization, immigration, urbanization, and social disorder to the country- an ideal milieu for filibustering. Just as some youths sought identity in a fluid social environment by joining volunteer militia and fire companies or by frequenting taverns or illegal boxing matches, others cast their fate with filibuster companies. Certainly most immigrants-turned filibusters seem to have regarded their units as a haven from the nativism and job discrimination that pervaded antebellum American municipal life. Filibuster recruiters promised wages, rations, and, sometimes, land, minds, and other riches to gullible enlistees....German, Hungarian, and Irish immigrants played a visible role in filibuster expeditions departing such mid-Atlantic ports as New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore.8
The appeal of filibustering crossed class lines. Sons of planters, merchants, and prominent politicians joined clerks, apprentices, and immigrants in filibuster invasions. Some college students dropped out of their institutions to participate. A "young man . . . of the senior class left here quite abruptly a week ago and it is supposed that he put out for Cuba," a Princeton student noted at the time of Lopez's last expedition to the island. Filibustering appealed to youthful idealism. A University of Mississippi student contacted the leader of a Cuban filibustering expedition, John A. Quitman, arguing that "a people strugling beneath repression should not only receive the sympathies, but the strong arm of assistance of the republican institutions" of the United States. But in a day of romantic individualism, when many American males were reading Sir Walter Scott, rural and urban youths alike also relished the adventure and opportunity to become a hero that filibustering seemed to promise. "Dear General," perpetual filibuster Chatham Roberdeau Wheat explained to Quitman, "the height of my ambition is to lead a desperate charge in your presence & then to receive your commendation." On mere impulse, perhaps after hearing an oration, young men signed up with filibuster units, bought new weapons, and within days were on their way to a filibuster rendezvous. Then they caroused and bonded together, hoping that their funds would hold out until the expedition departed. "The Louisville boys came to join us to-day . . . and we had a gay time before they bid us adieu:' a filibuster jotted in his. diary during the opening phases of one operation. Though engaged in illegal activity, the filibusters sometimes inspired public adulation, which only fed the illusory fires of chivalry.
At times, crowds of well-wishers lined the docks to cheer filibusters off. The romance might even continue at sea or over the border for a while, until reality set in. "We have got almost there and are going filibustering now sure," one filibuster penciled home from a Nicaragua-bound steamer, exultant that his party had managed to evade the authorities in California. Flags of prospective republics heightened the exhilarating moments, as young American males waited anxiously for a chance to prove their valor to the world.9 Filibustering, in short, involved a cross section of young American males. Texans and Californians, to be sure, dominated forays into Mexico. Several expeditions designed to protect or expand slavery attracted a high percentage of southerners...Walker's cause became a southern crusade after he reestablished slavery in Nicaragua. But to define filibustering as an episode in American regionalism is to obscure the almost infinite variety of reasons that led young men to join expeditions. Unhappy family lives, broken romances, debts, and troubles with the law were as likely to make a filibuster as was proslavery fanaticism. The potential spoils of war attracted filibusters just as they have enticed countless soldiers and sailors through the ages....During the pre-Civil War era, it was by no means clear to young American males aspiring to be soldiers that they would better serve their country or their own interests by joining the army rather than a filibuster cohort. Commissions and promotions were hard to come by in a shrinking army, and peace with foreign nations limited the battlefield experience they might gain to skirmishes against native Americans on the Plains. Small-scale engagements in isolated western regions held little promise for fame or glory. But filibuster commanders such as Walker and Quitman presented themselves as professional soldiers and urged that their ventures be considered as alternatives to army service, while filibuster exploits attracted frontpage headlines....Had the army provided antifilibuster indoctrination or an intellectual barrier to filibuster thoughts, things might have been different. However, America's soldiers shared civilian ideologies of Anglo-American racial superiority and Manifest Destiny. Capt. Joseph H. La Motte reported from Ringgold Barracks that much was being said around the post about "the indomitable energy & perseverance of the Saxon race." Lt. Theodore Talbot announced, "Our 'Manifest destiny' bids fair for fulfillment."...At times, army officers and enlisted men acted out their expansionist fantasies by joining expeditions. The process began in the waning days of the Mexican War,  as thousands of young volunteers were mustered out of the service while their officers pondered restricted promotion opportunities for the indefinite future. (Quitman, Worth, RE Lee, Lt William L. Crittenden (killed)) American soldiers did filibuster in Yucatin. Two lieutenants in the army's Thirteenth Infantry Regiment, Joseph A. White and David G. Wilds, accepted commissions...recruited over five hundred discharged soldiers at $8 per month plus a 320-acre land bonus...Filibusters anticipated that once Quitman joined their ranks, the cream of the United States Army would flock to his standard. Quitman accepted a commission from the Cuban Junta, an organization of Cuban exiles, in August 1853. Subsequently, some of Quitman's favorite wartime comrades, including officers still in the regular army, flocked to the filibuster standard....Only two months separated the cancellation of Quitman's Cuba project in March 1855 and the launching of William Walker's Nicaragua enterprise. For some restless souls in the army, the temptation of an apparently successful filibuster expedition proved irresistible. Nicaragua enticed adventure-craving cadets at the military academy...
When naval commodore Hiram Paulding evacuated destitute filibusters from Central America in 1857 after the collapse of Walker's regime, he noted that a filibuster colonel was "late an officer in the U.S. Army." Half a year later, when Paulding forced Walker's surrender at Punta Arenas following the filibuster's reinvasion of Nicaragua, he took into custody the Mexican War hero Thomas Henry, who had served in the regular army until October 1855, as well as other former United States army soldiers. In lodging a complaint with President James Buchanan about Paulding's interference, Walker noted that some of the men apprehended had at one time "led your soldiers across the continent."43...The most startling aspect of the army filibustering story concerns the officers, some of whom became famous Civil War generals, who went to the filibuster brink but never quite made the ultimate commitment. ...Cadmus Wilcox...P. G. T. Beauregard almost provided his talents to Walker's Nicaragua....Beauregard asked that Quitman (with whom he had served in Mexico) recommend him to Walker for a commission. It was only after Walker sacked the Nicaraguan city of Granada in November 1856 that Beauregard backed off. The filibuster, from Beauregard's perspective, had displayed "a ferocity, & Vandalism, unworthy of the American Character" and no longer deserved support.~5..Such flirtation with filibustering survived Walker's eviction from Nicaragua in 1857. No sooner did Walker arrive on American soil in May than he started to organize men and materiel for a return to Nicaragua. That summer and fall, four former Mexican War officers and future Civil War generals-Johnson Kelly Duncan (who had resigned his lieutenancy in 1855), George B. McClellan (who had resigned his lieutenancy in January 1857 and become chief engineer of the Illinois Central Railroad), Gustavus Smith, and Lovell -corresponded about joining Walker and rescuing the tropics from the "mongrel occupants" who stood in the way of the area's regeneration. "The fact is Mac," Duncan urged McClellan, "if we don't embrace some chance like this, our day and generation will pass amidst the quiets of peace, . . . our lives will be devoted to the accumulation of dollars and cents."...Duncan suggested that McClellan might become Walker's highest-ranking subordinate and that the army group might even take control of the movement if Walker faltered. It is difficult to determine how many other army officers were making plans to accompany Walker's next filibuster. One of Walker's principal organizers reported, "We shall have a much better class of men in the next expedition already we have one major, four captains, and eight Lieutenants all in good standing now in the United States army who hold themselves ready to resign and march when the order is given to move." The Duncan-McClellan-Smith-Lovell coterie dropped out of the scheme prior to Walker's departure in November, to the relief of another future Civil War notable, Lt. Col. Joseph Johnston. Johnston had been kept posted on his compeers' preliminary planning but had concluded that Walker was no better than a "robber."46  (Leonidas McIntosh and Birkett D. Fry of the Voltigeur Regiment would serve under Walker) No sooner had the Duncan group turned away from Walker than it trained its sights on Mexico. In early 1858, Lovell and Johnston negotiated with Mexican Liberals about inserting four thousand American filibusters into the Mexican civil war on the Liberals' side. McClellan, promised a leading role in the force, became excited about the prospects of military service "in a righteous cause & with fair prospect of distinction." The project fell through that February due to Mexican suspicions of the plotters' intent. Yet Johnston found it hard to make a clean break. Sent to Mexico by the War Department a year later to investigate United States military transit rights across Mexican territory, Johnston considered "founding a Spanish castle upon the basis of last year." Only upon discovering that Liberal leaders remained unreceptive did Johnston inform McClellan that the scheme was truly hopeless. The "Filibustees," as Johnston referred to his clique in July 1860, would have to exert their energies in other ways. Ironically, at the very time that Johnston called it quits on dreams of Mexican filibustering, another future Confederate military leader decided to filibuster south of the border. Maj. James Longstreet, army paymaster at Albuquerque, New Mexico Territory, informed Congressman William P. Miles in February 1860 that he and "one or two friends" had been "working very hard, for several years past, to get Chihuahua into the U.S." and that the appropriate moment had arrived. Longstreet wanted Miles to lobby President Buchanan to approve his raising a regiment of volunteers. Longstreet promised he would march the volunteers into Chihuahua within forty days after their authorization. Furthermore, the foray would bring extra dividends: "Once we got a foot hold in Chihuahua Sonora, which is more important, will very soon follow."47 Without the interruption of the Civil War, army involvement in filibuster machinations would most likely have persisted indefinitely. Perhaps it would have escalated. Even after the conflict, officers and enlisted men continued to make an occasional contribution to filibustering, either through involvement in expeditions or through lax enforcement of legislation. The difference was that the age of Manifest Destiny had dissolved into new forms of expansion, and filibustering itself had a
greatly reduced hold on the American scene.48"

Young American Males and Filibustering in the Age of Manifest Destiny
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Quick View
by Robert E. May - 1991

later a book - "Manifest Destiny's Underworld: Filibustering in Antebellum America"   
Robert E. May - 2004 - 448 pages
"Robert May offers an imaginative new approach to antebellum America's notorious "filibusters"--the adventurers who organized or participated in private military attacks on nations with which the United States was formally at peace.
Condemned abroad as pirates, the filibusters were often celebrated at home as heroes who epitomized the spirit of Manifest Destiny. May explains the romantic, mercenary, ideological, and psychological desires that drove thousands of men to join filibustering expeditions; how they were financed; and why the U.S. government had little success in curtailing them. He also reveals the legacy of anti-Americanism that filibustering generated in Latin America, where people regarded the attackers much the way we look upon international terrorists today."

 Tycoon's War: How Cornelius Vanderbilt Invaded a Country to Overthrow ...
 By Stephen Dando-Collins

James McQueen McIntosh

"(James McQueen) McIntosh led the Second Arkansas Mounted Rifles.  He had earned a degree from West Point a year after the end of the Mexican War, a conflict that had taken the life of his father, a colonel in the Regulars.  Although he graduated last in his class, by 1857 he was captain in the First U.S. Cavalry.  This was an astonishingly swift rise for peacetime service, and his regiment was considered by many to be the elite of the army.  McIntosh resigned his commission in May 1861, while stationed at Fort Smith.  He had no way of knowing that this action would profoundly affect his younger brother. Believing that James had disgraced the family name, John Baillie McIntosh volunteered for the Union forces.  John eventually rose to the rank of major general, James to brigadier general, but only the brother in blue would survive the war." 11

see Wilson's Creek: The Second Battle of the Civil War and the Men Who Fought It by William Garrett Piston, Richard W. Hatcher.. 2003 - 432 pages p. 96
- The Confederate Cherokees: John Drew's Regiment of Mounted Rifles by W. Craig Gaines, 1989

Other sources for the distinguished McIntosh American clan:
- The Magazine of history with notes and queries, Volume 7 published 1908 - google book - p.103- A SKETCH OF THE McINTOSH FAMILY:
"Gen. John McIntosh, son of Col. William McIntosh, was the father of Maj. William Jackson McIntosh, Maj. John Nash McIntosh and Col. James Simmons McIntosh of the United States Army and Mexican War, whose sons were Capt. Leonidas McIntosh of Mexican War and Gen. John Baillie McIntosh of the Federal Army, who lost a leg [battle of Opequan, Virginia], and his brother Gen. James McQueen McIntosh of the Confederate Army, killed at Oak Ridge [Pea Ridge]..."
- The Georgians: genealogies of pioneer settlers by Jeannette Holland Austin - Page 243
- McIntosh-The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans - By Rossiter Johnson, and Brown, John Howard, - google book
-  Lachlan McIntosh -
- RECOLLECTIONS OF A NAVAL LIFE Including the Cruises of the Confederate States Steamers "Sumter" and "Alabama" Kell, John McIntosh, 1823-1900 - google book


In the transcendent legacy of ex-Rifleman James Simmons McIntosh and on through his sons, of whom "one wore blue and one wore grey," we come to the saddest chapter in our nation's history -  but also a new chapter in the saga of the rifle and riflemen forged by the legendary Civil War US Sharpshooter Regiments (1st and 2nd USSS) and all modern American infantry.


Other noted riflemen from the Mexican War in the Civil War:

Culled here is a list of Voltigeur Riflemen officers* who saw service in the Civil War.  Most notable from their ranks came the South's most accomplished defensive strategist - GENERAL J.E. Johnston, CSA.

c-Joseph E Johnston - Bvt Maj Lt Col and Col Cerro Gordo and Chapultepec wounded near Cerro Gordo and at City of Mexico Gen CSA late war died March 21 1891 at Washington DC (Wilcox, 615)

u-Archibald B Campbell Surgeon USV late war died September 1 1878
c-James J Archer Bvt Maj Chapultepec Bri Gen CSA late war; died October 24, 1864
u-Charles J Biddle Bvt Maj Chapultepec Col U.S.V. late war died September 28, 1873 at Philadelphia Pa
u-James N Caldwell Maj U.S.A.late war died March 13, 1886 at Carthage Ohio*
RG - an erroneous entry is found above (Wilcox, 1892) reference James N Caldwell (Ohio) - this officer should be listed as James H Calwell born in MD, commissioned from VA; who died from wounds received 18 Sept 1847 in Mexico.
c-Oscar E Edwards Bvt Maj Chapultepec Col CSA late war
c-Birkett D Fry Brig Gen CSA late war
c-John W Leigh Bvt Capt National Bridge and Cerro Gordo; Maj CSA late war
u-Henry C Longnecker Col U.S.V. late war died September 16, 1871
c-William S Walker Bvt Capt Chapultepec Brig Gen CSA late war
c-Robert H Archer Lt Col CSA late war died March 10, 1878
c-George W Carr Col CSA late war
u-Theodore D Cochran Capt USA late war died July 25, 1863
c-Robert C Forsyth Bvt 1st Lt Chapultepec Lt Col CSA late war
u-Frank H Larned Capt U.S.A. late war
c-James E Slaughter Brig Gen CSA late war
c-Isaac W Smith Capt CSA late war
u-Charles Adam Heckman NCO SGT* Voltigeurs Brig Gen U.S.V. late war died January 14, 1896, Germantown, PA

18 total -  11 CSA vs 7 USA

- History of the Mexican War by Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox, 1892, pp. 651-652

further information (bio sketches etc) can be found in my May 2009 post entitled:
More on the Mounted Riflemen and Voltigeurs & Foot...

An informative discussion of the Voltigeurs uniform, as adopted by the Confederacy (many and varied uniforms were worn by the "Blue and the Gray"), with some commentary on the Voltigeurs legacy itself, is offered on page 161 of Ron Field's detailed study: Uniforms of the Civil War: An Illustrated Guide for Historians, Collectors, 2005.

As alluded to above and as related initially by Emory Upton in 1907, beyond uniforms, the key influence was the grey-coated Voltigeur's combined-arms concept,  proposed to be incorporated into a Confederate Legion. How important the Legion legacy and combined arms concept was to the CSA military authorities may be gauged by how many were formed  (one authority estimates there were about 10 CSA Legions) or so named:

On the same day May 21, 1861, that the an "...act was approved to put in operation the government under the permanent Constitution of the Confederate States... the sum of $39,375,138 was appropriated for additional expenses in the military service for the year ending February 18 1862. Of the above amount the sum of $550,485 was appropriated for the pay of 1 regiment of legionary formation composed of 1 company of artillery 4 companies of cavalry and 6 companies of voltigeurs. This regiment  was modeled substantially on the Legion of the United States (abandoned)."
- The military policy of the United States; by Bvt. Maj. Gen. Emory Upton, By Emory Upton, 1907, p.455
- Confederate Organizational Structure-Legion - Johan Steele and ME Wolf threads (the Union had several as well)

* wikipedia - * "Hampton's Legion was an American Civil War military unit of the Confederate States of America, organized and partially financed by wealthy South Carolina plantation  owner Wade Hampton III. Initially composed of infantry, cavalry, and artillery  battalions, elements of Hampton's Legion participated in virtually every major campaign in the Eastern Theater, from the first to the last battle.
A legion  historically consisted of a single integrated command, with individual components including infantry, cavalry, and artillery. The concept of a multiple-branch unit was never a practical application for Civil War armies and, early in the war, the individual elements were assigned to other organizations.
Organized by Wade Hampton in early 1861, Hampton's Legion initially boasted a large number of South Carolina's leading citizens, including future generals J. Johnston Pettigrew, Stephen Dill Lee, Martin W. Gary, and Matthew C. Butler. Originally, the Legion comprised six companies of infantry, two of cavalry, and one of light artillery. The infantry and cavalry fought in the First Battle of Manassas, where Colonel Hampton suffered the first of several wounds during the war. In November 1861, the artillery was then outfitted with four Blakely Rifles, imported from England and slipped through the Union blockade into Savannah, Georgia. By the end of the year, each element of the Legion had been expanded with new companies to bolster the effective combat strength.With the reorganization of the Army of Northern Virginia in mid-1862, Hampton's Legion was broken up and reassigned...infantry element, retaining the designation Hampton's Legion..In March 1864, it was converted to mounted infantry...."

Green Coats to Grey Coats to Green Coats versus Grey:

In his singular study of the Rifle Regiment of the early regular Army, John C. Fredriksen used the appellation "Green Coats" in the title of his groundbreaking articles and later book; a believed, not so subtle, linkage to the two US Sharpshooter Regiments of the volunteer army in the Civil War, who were better known by that nickname.  Indeed, Henry Kurtz, who referred to the nickname frequently in his 1963 article on the US Sharpshooters, recalled: "Singly as well as in detachments, the "Green Coats" - as they were known to friend and foe - performed great feats of marksmanship." p.16

1808-1821: PART I and PART II, by John Fredriksen MILITARY COLLECTOR & HISTORIAN.
Issue No.1, Vol. 50 (nominal Spring 1998)
Issue No.2, Volume 50 (nominal Summer 1998)
- "Green Coats and Glory," by John C. Fredriksen, Old Fort Niagara Assoc., Youngstown, NY 2000.
- "Berdan's Sharpshooters Most Effective Union Brigade," by Henry I. Kurtz, Famous Fighting Units - Civil War Times Illustrated February, 1963, pp. 14-19

That the Riflemen also wore grey/gray uniforms has been underplayed.  A shortage of green cloth, in the midst of war in 1814, required the army to uniform the quickly organized 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Rifle Regiments in a "plain gray uniform" but the "1st Regiment probably managed to retain its green uniform..." - H. Charles McBarron. [and as Winfield Scott did with his "Regulars, By God!" brigade of infantry prior to the Battle of Chippewa.]
H. Charles McBarron's original text to CMH illustration Plate 95  REGIMENT OF RIFLEMEN, WINTER UNIFORM  1812-1815 first published in MILITARY UNIFORMS IN AMERICA,VI, No. 4: December 1954 reproduced in color, with their texts in Years of Growth, 1796-1851 (John R. Elting, ed.; Presidio Press, San Rafael, California, 1977).

With 3 of 4 regiments already so uniformed in gray, and with sufficient post-war stocks of the gray uniform available, it seems likely that grey/gray was the uniform imposed on the singular regiment. Then too, there exist units records and documents, which I have not personally read, that may specify exact uniforms worn by the regiment from 1815-1821.

The gray uniform is also cited by Colonel Virgil Ney, FORT ON THE PRAIRIE: FORT ATKINSON ON THE COUNCIL BLUFF, 1819-1827, by Colonel Virgil Ney, 1979,  by Kenneth Flint in his historical fiction account entitled On Earth's Remotest Bounds: Year One: Blood and Water, 2004, and by James M. McCaffrey in The Army in Transformation, 1790-1860, 2006

When the federal and confederate governments called for volunteers, individual states utilized common historical names of Riflemen - Rifles - Rangers - Voltigeurs - and apparently the newest rage - the nickname "Sharpshooters" (although used in the Revolution and associated with Rifle units in William Duane's "Handbook for Riflemen" in 1812. see William Duane's "Origin of the Rifle Corps" in A Handbook for Riflemen (1812)

For examples see:

- List of synonyms of organizations in the volunteer service of the United States, 1885

Rifle Rangers NH
Rifle Rangers Albion MI
Rifle Rangers Chormann's Independent Mounted PA
Rifle Rangers Mounted Squadron MASS
Rifle Rangers Sank WIS
Rifle Rangers Wolverine MI....
Rifle Regiment NJ
Rifle Regiment Colt's Conn
Rifle Regiment Kane PA
Rifle Regiment Morton's Independent OH.
Rifles 1st PA
Rifles 1st Regiment MO
Rifles 2d Regiment MO
Shown here are some selected NY state unit names from the excellant NY DMNA site:

Morgan Rifles; Northern Sharpshooters; New York Riflemen assigned to 93rd NY Infantry
New York State Rifles; Riflemen assigned to NY 18th Infantry
Union Rangers; NY 25th Infantry
Union Rifles; part of NY 51st Infantry
Union Sharpshooters; part of 17th Veteran Infantry
United States Rifles: Colonel Wladimir Krzyzanowski received authority from the War Department August 20, 1861, to recruit a regiment of infantry, which he named the United States Rifles...the 58th (NY) Regiment was organized in New York City by the State authorities by the consolidation of the incomplete Morgan and the United States Rifles.
United States Voltigeurs or Rangers, Co. A; Co. D, assigned to NY 51st Infantry
United States Voltigeurs, Cos. B and C; Cos. I and K, NY assigned to 57th Infantry*

*"Fifty Seventh Regiment of Infantry
National Guard Rifles - Clinton Rifles - United States Voltigeurs - Zook's Voltigeurs
This regiment received its numerical designation Oct 19th 1861, was organized and mustered
in the service of the United States at New York city for three years between Aug 12th and
Nov 19th 1861. It was formed by the consolidation of several organizations recruited under
special authority from the War Department. The National Guard Rifles or Zook's Voltigeurs,
Col Samuel K. Zook, formed Companies A B C D and E; the Clinton Rifles, Col JA Page, became
Companies F, G and H (A and E = F) and G, D, F and G = H); the United States Voltigeurs or Volunteers,
Companies B and C, Col Albert C. Ramsey**, formed Companies I and K and Samuel K. Zook was appointed Colonel of the regiment. Before this consolidation tho Washington Zouaves, Col James H. Romain,
had been merged into the Voltigeurs and the Manhattan Rifles, Col George W. Vanderbilt, in the
National Guard Rifles. During the summer of 1864, the companies, being small in numbers, were for
tactical purposes, consolidated, the company organization on paper remaining intact...."p.417
- from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.

****It would thus appear that Albert C. Ramsey (1813-1869) - born in Pennsylvania - appointed in Regular Army as colonel of the 11th U.S. Regiment of Infantry in April 1847 -  thought well, even highly, of the U.S. Voltigeur Regiment of 1847-48.
Indeed, these two regiments, along with the 14th, comprised Cadwallader's Brigade of the 3rd Division (Pillow) in the Mexico City Campaign.
When the Civil War began he returned from Texas, leaving his wife and married daughter behind, to raise a regiment.
He or someone he knew closely, purposely chose the name Voltigeurs for what was planned to be a federal Volunteer, vice state, regiment.
A new "U.S. Voltigeurs Regiment of US Volunteers," commanded by Col Albert C. Ramsey" was actually "called into the service of the United States by orders from the War Department from the 4th day of September 1861, (date of this muster), for the term of three years, or the war, unless sooner discharged."* 

What then happened to Ramsey's original regimental plan or to to Ramsey himself is speculative. 
Likely it was factors such as a lack of sufficient volunteers for a long and unpopular "3-year" regiment (10 companies), especially under federal control;  state versus federal political issues; perhaps personality differences or feuds - which combined to abort its formation in favor of a state-based regiment.  Beyond raising two companies, Ramsey did not see active service in the war.
 Unlike a Hiram Berdan, Ramsey lacked contacts (Scott and Lincoln), reputation (world-class "sharpshooter"), an invention (Berdan rifle etc.), to sustain his project (the Regiment), in face of setbacks ((Ordnance Dept.) that even Berdan encountered in forming his two U.S Sharpshooter Regiments for federal service. While Berdan was later adjudged unfit for field command, beginning with no previous command or combat experience, as Colonel Ramsey could claim, this mattered less in the chaotic, politically dominated nature of the Civil War, as it would later in the military bureaucracy of the Cold War.
Family reports indicate that Ramsey's wife (born in Md) and daughter were loyal to the Confederacy, and it would seem inordinately so, as he reportedly died from disease (kidney failure), four years after wars end - alone in New York City.


"Foot rifle units had also existed in the Regular Army. One or more Regiments of Riflemen were authorized 1808-1821 and 1843-1844. A Regiment of Voltigeurs and Foot Riflemen existed 1847-1848. These earlier foot rifle units are not known to have used the trumpet as an insignia. It is interesting that the term "Foot Riflemen" can still be found in the 1861 regulations despite the fact that no such branch existed in the Regular Army at the time. However, there were a number of foot riflemen units within state militias. Many of these units wore the trumpet insignia and the green branch color of riflemen. ....The riflemen trumpet insignia disappeared from use during the war. The volunteer sharpshooter regiments, focused on marksmanship, that came into being during the war picked up the green branch color of riflemen, but not the vertical trumpet insignia. They were the brainchild of Hiram Berdan and did not have the status of a formal branch of service. They should not be viewed as the linear descendants of riflemen units even if they were used in a similar way."
- Union Army Uniforms and Insignia of the Civil War Officers' Uniforms - Rifle Officer - at Union Army Uniforms and Insignia of the Civil War, Compiled by Dr. Howard G. Lanham

Prolific Civil War blogger Brett Schulte offers a cogent short historical summary on "American Riflemen" from  his chapter by chapter review of Fred Ray's 2006 book entitled, 
"Shock Troops of the Confederacy: The Sharpshooter Battalions of the Army of Northern Virginia."

"Chapter 2: American Riflemen
In Chapter 2, the author shifts gears and concentrates on the development of Riflemen in the extremely wooded lands of America. Riflemen armed with the Kentucky rifle played a role in the American Revolution, picking off officers and others who displayed gallantry and generally demoralizing the opposition. George Washington formed a Corps of Rangers during the war, but the numbers of riflemen were diminished slowly as the war wore on. Although the Kentucky rifle could reach long distances, shortcomings such as its brittle nature as a hunting rifle and the lack of a bayonet made Washington and others reluctant to use riflemen unless line infantry protected them. Between the American Revolution and the War of 1812, riflemen were used sporadically. Ray mentions that a new “short rifle” based on German jäger designs was introduced in 1803, and that this new rifle was superior to the Baker rifle, its British counterpart. The new rifle was used by the new Regiment of Riflemen in the War of 1812. Ray discusses the various exploits of the American riflemen and their British counterparts, noting especially their deployment by Andrew Jackson at New Orleans in 1815. Several rifle units in the time between the War of 1812 and the Mexican War are then discussed, including the Regiment of U.S. Voltigeurs and Foot Riflemen and also the Regiment of Mounted Riflemen, both of which were organized in the 1840’s. Due to lessons learned in the Mexican War and in conflicts with Native Americans, both light units and individual sharpshooters (what we would call snipers today) fell out of favor by the time of the Civil War." - TOCWOC - A Civil War Blog

Fred Ray's book is detailed at his own website

Shock Troops of the Confederacy: The Sharpshooter Battalions of the Army of Northern Virginia. 
Fred L. Ray. Asheville, NC: CFS Press (2006). 432 pp. 43 maps.

here was my Amazon review:

Goes Beyond CSA Sharpshooters, April 11, 2006
Shock Troops of the Confederacy is a somewhat misleading title as what is on offer is actually two books in one!
The treatment of the Sharpshooter record and legacy (both sides) is certainly well covered, it is in fact a broad ranging and compelling testimony of the efficacy of shock and open order tactics in the midst of a war in which often the blind led the blind; especially when they had the means to do otherwise. The battle narratives are tightly-written and coincides nicely with the maps provided.
However, the unaware reader who merely thinks of this book as a focused "Confederate Army" unit or battle study is in for so much more; one is unexpectedly offered an historical and international study of the rifle...Open order..evolution and impact on modern warfare. Therefore, I would have titled it something like - "The Rise of Modern Infantry - the Evolution of Rifle, Sharpshooter, and Shock Troops from the Civil War to the First World War.

If  "both light units and individual sharpshooters fell out of favor by the time of the Civil War," it was not apparent by the so nicknamed units that rushed forth to join up on both sides.  In its case, the U.S. Sharpshooters justified their naming and reputation by hard-fighting on key battlefields during the then Northern called War of the Rebellion (called the "War for Southern Independence" at the same time down south) - just as did the Rifle regiments* of the Continental Army in the First War of Independence and the US Army in the Second War of Independence, as it should be considered, otherwise called the War of 1812.

Their reputation and plaudits came as a result of similar lethal performance as units as well as skilled individual shooters.
(*e.g. ~ Pennsylvania Rifle Regiment, Maryland & Virginia Rifle Regiment - Congress and Washington referred to them as the "Corps of Rangers," - also known, officially and unofficially. as the "Ranger Corps," "Rifle Corps," "Partisan Corps," or, simply, "Morgan's Riflemen")

Henry Kurtz wrote, "Years after the war, the Sharpshooters proudly asserted that they had killed more Confederates than any two regiments in the Union Army - a statement yet unchallenged." p. 15. 

- Berdan's Sharpshooters Most Effective Union Brigade by Henry I. Kurtz,
Famous Fighting Units Civil War Times Illustrated, February, 1963, pp. 14-19

Sharpshooter literature (alphabetical):
Barker, Lorenzo A. With the Western Sharpshooters (Dust Jacket title) Michigan Boys of Company D, 66th Illinois. Blue Acorn Press, 1994. Reprint, originally published under the title: Military History. Birge's Western Sharpshooters in the Civil War 1861-1865.

Earley, Gerald L. The Second United States Sharpshooters in the Civil War: A History and Roster, 2009
Fahle, Michael L. The Best the Union Could Muster: The True Story of Berdan's U.S. Sharpshooters at the Battle of Gettysburg.  Greencoat Productions, Lindsey, OH, 1998
Greene, William B. Letters from a Sharpshooter : The Civil War Letters of William B. Greene, Co. G 2nd United States Sharpshooters (Berdan's) Army of the Potomac 1861-1865 by William H. Hastings, William B. Greene
Katcher, Philip. Sharpshooters of the American Civil War 1861-65. Osprey Military Warrior Series No. 60. Osprey, 2002.
Kent, William C. "Sharpshooting with Berdan. eyewitness account of the Seven Days' Battle." Civil War Time Illustrated.....May 1976 Volume XV Number 2.
Kurtz, Henry I. "Berdan's Sharpshooters Most Effective Union Brigade" - Famous Fighting Units - Civil War Times Illustrated, Volume 1, No X, February, 1963, pp. 14-19.

(Complete Online Index of Civil War Times (Illustrated) from TOCWOC – A Civil War Blog)

Marcot, Roy M."Berdan's Sharpshooters at Gettysburg" Gettysburg Magazine "Volume 1" 1989
Marcot, Roy M. U.S. Sharpshooters: Berdan's Civil War Elite. Stackpole, 2007.
Matthews, James Mero SOLDIERS IN GREEN - The Civil War Diaries of James Mero Matthews, 2nd U.S. Sharpshooters by Peter Dalton & Associates. Company D of the 2nd U.S. Sharpshooters was composed entirely of Maine men.
Plaster, Maj. John L. Sharpshooting in the Civil War, Paladin Press 2009.
- critical review by at Frank Piatek
Pindell, Richard. "The Most Dangerous Set of Men." CW Times Illus 32 (Jul/Aug 1993): pp. 42-50 & 52-53 (11 pages). Volume XXXIII Number 3
Stevens, Capt. C. A. - Berdan's United States Sharpshooters of the Army of the Potomac 1864-65. Classic history of this Union regiment. Reprint of 1892. Morningside, 1984.
Sword, Wiley. - Sharpshooter: Hiram Berdan, his Famous Sharpshooters and Their Sharps Rifles. The story of the U.S. Sharpshooters from the beginning to end. Includes two first hand accounts. Andrew Mowbray, Inc., 1988.
White, Wyman S. - The Civil War Diary of Wyman S. White: First Sergeant of Company F, 2nd United States Sharpshooters, 1861-1865 Butternut and Blue, 1991.

United States Sharpshooters - Bibliography (PDF) - originally created by the USAMHI, 1998, Updated by Tim Pedersen, 2006,

for brief annotations and illustrations see the Berdan Sharpshooters pages at:

and some wonderful artwork at 

my meager offering to the legacy of this fascinating and well-documented unit is at:

US Sharpshooter Regiments

Here I contend, as I did concerning the U.S. Rifle Regiments (1808-1821), and U. S. Regiment of Voltigeurs & Foot Riflemen (1847-48), that the 1st and 2nd Regiments of U.S, Sharpshooters are a part of the Ranger evolution and should, therefore, be included in their lineage.

Argument 1: In tactics, organization, and qualifications the Sharpshooters belong in the Ranger story - as much if not more than so-called ad-hoc state "Ranger" outfits or Partisan Rangers from the Civil War periods.
Argument 2: Most military tacticians who have studied the Sharpshooter's actions are in agreement that, in their use of camouflage, concealment, emphasis on marksmanship, aimed and volume of fire, and dispersed formations, the US Sharpshooter Regiments pointed the way to the future employment of modern infantry and ranger infantry."

Life Magazine - Feb 3 1961
Warriors' wardrobes
p. 67
Military uniforms

New York Timesarticles:

July 17, 1861
Sharp Shooting Regiments
"The formation of regiments of Sharp-shooters as a branch of the military service, is attracting special attention. Rifle, or sharp-shooters as it is termed in the military parlance of the day, is a science of fine and numerous combinations of a high order, more so than is generally conceived. "

August 7, 1861

"The uniform of the Sharpshooters will be green in Summer and grey at other seasons, to assimilate as nearly as possible with the colors of nature. They ridicule the idea of Zouave and Havelock uniforms, as affording too splendid a target for marksmen. They will be armed with the most improved Springfield rifle, with a plain silver pin sight at the muzzle, and notch sight, or the globe sight at the breech for long range, or on a dark day, or night shooting. It was at first intended to arm them with the Northern target rifle, but it was found that there were not enough in the country...It is the first regiment of rifles ever formed worthy of the name -- i.e. that subjected each member to the rifle shooting test. "

VELITES OR VOLTIGEURS; The United States army and navy journal and gazette of the regular ..., Volume 3, 1865, p. 229-230
"...In our country, Senator Benton proposed a regiment of voltigeurs, during the Mexican war, and it was raised, but it is very questionable if it ever discharged, in any one case, its peculiar duties. Voltigeurs are not chimerical, for they were rendered serviceable, as will be shown, by the Romans. They have also been recognized, as herein proved, as valuable elements of a military force by many nations, ancient as well as modern. Still to make them what they should be demands a far greater degree of sense, choice and care than any United States war administration ever yet has shown. Small, well formed, robust, agile, intelligent men, good shots, are needed on the one hand, and very strong, active, handy, chunky horses on the other. Over big horses have too much of their own weight to boar along, to carry double, and bulky men, either in height or girth, would soon break down anything but an exceedingly strong animal. A voltigeur brigade, however, might be maintained, and if kept up in regular legionary style would render sufficiently efficient service to pay for the extra care needed in iu organization and maintenance. According to General Babdin, the term voltigeur dates from the Eighteenth Century. Judging from his language, it superseded or took the place of the older batteurs d'estrade—scout—a soldier mounted or dismounted, as it may have been—or perhaps eclaireur, a title applied to members of " a corps," says Duane, " raised by Bonaparte " in France, who, from their celerity of movement, were "compared to lightning"—defined by James flankers). Eclaireurs, a half century since, according to Hoyt, were emphatically batteurs d'estrade who led the army, resembling feelers, observing everything, guarded the flanks in passing defiles, and prevented ambuscades. ...We needed such men exceedingly during our late civil war, and it would seem of paramount importance while at peace to provide them against a future conflict...."


NARAtions » Family Tree Friday: U.S. Voltigeurs in the Mexican War

Oct 1, 2010 ... I thought it would be interesting to continue that trend, moving on this time to introduce the Regiment of U.S. Voltigeurs and Foot Riflemen ...


It is not my goal to go beyond this point, 1865, in US Army history to document other units of particular interest.
Units, such as Merrill's Marauder's and the 1st Special Service Force, overtime, at last received their just due, in histories, studies, film and, through the miracle of the web, in well conceived and designed commemorative websites by unit veterans and admirers that do justice to their memory.

RANGER - Department of Defense

Big Picture: Ranger Ready - National Archives and Records Administration
For this issue of THE BIG PICTURE our camera crews have journeyed into the mountains of North Georgia and the swamps of Florida in order to bring the story of the U.S..

Big Picture: Ranger: Mark of a Man - National Archives and Records Administration
This is the story of the American Ranger--a long and colorful one of courage, daring and outstanding leadership. Filmed in the swamps of Florida and in the mountains of North Georgia, this episode in THE BIG PICTURE series shows how the Infantry, Queen of Battle, is developing a new breed of fighting man--The U.S.

Merrill's Marauders - National Archives and Records Administration
Created by Quaid, David L. This film covers the secret campaign, under General Frank D. Merrill, to reopen the Burma Road behind enemy lines during World War II. The film was photographed and produced by David L. Quaid.Made possible by a donation from Jim Schrempp.

It has never been my contention that, because a unit was considered unique, or special (for its time), it should be considered as an elite. Such a term, to my mind, has too much of a modern, societal connotation, to be considered meaningful. 

From a relatively scarce number of merit-able studies initially available to the general public, studies such as Otto Heilbrunn's* groundbreaking "Warfare in the Enemy's Rear" (1963), and Roger A Beaumont's provocative "Military Elites: Special Fighting Units in the Modern World" (1974);  the marketplace gradually became flooded with books on "elite" units ad nauseum.  

A recent example is the late Briton Cooper Busch's, "Bunker Hill to Bastogne: elite forces and American society," published two years after his passing in 2004. The publisher's review asserts that "America's curiosity about elite military units is greater than ever...(Busch) goes much further to show the relationship between these special units and the societies that gave birth to them." 
The review also contained several key words and passages (my italics added) that piqued my interest, for example:
"their exploits have fostered the cherished image of the individualistic but loyal rifleman-ranger, these legends have not always corresponded to reality. America's roster of heroic images has long included esteemed elite units, running the gamut from Roger's Rangers at Fort Ticonderoga during the American Revolution to Berdan's Sharpshooters during the Civil War and the paratroopers of Normandy in World War II."....despite Americans' wariness of a possible military elite, their love of the fabled rifleman-ranger has seldom dwindled, though in the twenty-first century their hero might wear a green beret rather than a coonskin cap...."

Now, someone missed the fact that, although the original "Rogers Rangers" fought in and around Fort Ticonderoga, it was during the French and Indian War (1754-1763) and not in the American Revolution!  (Roger's did raise the Queen's Rangers in New York as a Loyalist regiment for British service and commanded them from 1776-1777.) 

Be that as it may - the rifleman-ranger has indeed been a lifelong fascination for me starting with, in order, the Davy Crockett craze (Fess Parker), reading my grandfather's old books on Robin Hood (with illustration below),  going to a drive-in to see John Wayne's version of the last stand at the Alamo and attending the post theater to watch Leonidas (Richard Egan) and his 300 Spartans defend the pass to the end or Merrill's Marauders (Ty Hardin) take Myitkyina and march on, and getting my weekly dose of must see TV - Daniel Boone starring Fess Parker (RIP).

Henry Kurtz captured the allure best in quoting from a newspaper reporter's 1861 description of the green-clad sharpshooters as having a:

"decidedly sylvan appearance, suggestive of Robin Hood and his merry men."
Robin Hood and his Merry Outlaws (George Harrap, c 1910)
artist Newell Convers Wyeth

 As the umpteenth RH blockbuster movie just released proves...whether he was a real person, a nickname for an outlaw, bandit, poser, pauper or prince - rooted in ballad, folklore or mythology - the allure continues for many.
Admittedly, however, I will not likely take-in RC's "message-on-offer" portrayal nor did I rush to see KC's 1991 version (or for that matter "dig"his"Dances with Stereotypes" pc-western).

* Dr. Otto Heilbrunn was generally regarded as the leading authority on irregular warfare.

Beaumont, Roger A Military Elites, Special Fighting Units in the Modern World. New York: Bobbs-Merrill Co, 1974

Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, US Army Command and General Staff College,
Heilbrunn, Otto Warfare in the Enemy's Rear, Frederick A. Praeger, 1963 
Hogan, David W. Raiders or elite infantry?: the changing role of the U.S. Army Rangers from
Dieppe to Grenada, 1992

McMichael, Scott R. Light Infantry Forces, CSI Historical Bibliography No.2 , Fort Leavenworth,
KS: Combat Studies Institute, US Army Command and General Staff College, 1984
Busch, Briton C. Bunker Hill to Bastogne: elite forces and American society, 2006
Zedric, Lance Q. Dilley Michael F., Elite Warriors: 300 Years of America's Best Fighting Troops, 1996 (includes rare discussion of Colonel William Russell's and Rangers of the War of 1812)

"Do we need another Robin Hood?
Type Robin Hood into IMDb and you are rewarded with a wealth of entries. According to the famed database, the Robin of Loxley character has appeared in 111 films and TV series. That’s 54 more than James Bond (57) and eight more than King Arthur (103). Robin is even a worthy rival to Hamlet’s impressive 180 nods."
Read more on The Advocate


finis for now


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