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More on the Mounted Riflemen and Voltigeurs & Foot Riflemen Regiments

updated research since 2007:
U.S. Regiment of Mounted Riflemen (1846-1861) - "Brave Rifles!"

"We want men acquainted with pioneer life, who have been accustomed to the woods-men who can sit in the saddle, and who know how to manage a horse, and the use of the never-failing rifle-who can pursue an enemy, and whose habit of life are such, that they can wrap themselves in a blanket at night, and comfortably in the open air, contented to be in the service of their country." -- Congressman Haralson, Georgia, March 26, 1846
Congressional Globe, 1833-1873 : Index to Appendix 29th Congress, 1st Session INDEX TO THE APPENDIX OF THE CONGRESSIONAL GLOBE

McClernand, J. A., a Representative from Illinois--
on the bill to raise a regiment of mounted riflemen, ... 420

Riflemen, remarks in the House of Representatives on the bill to raise two regiments of, by--
Mr. Haralson, of Georgia, ... 476
Mr. Yell, of Arkansas, ... 549
Mr. Gentry, of Tennessee, ... 551
Mr. Tilden, of Ohio, ... 564

Levin, Lewis C., a Representative from Pennsylvania-on the bill for raising a regiment of mounted riflemen, concerning the enlistment of foreigners in the army, ... 605

Campbell, W. W., a Representative from New York on the bill to raise a regiment of mounted riflemen, concerning the proposition to limit the enlistment and appointment of officers and soldiers to "Native Americans," ... 619

"The Regiment of Mounted Riflemen was constituted to help establish a military road to the Oregon Territory. For a number of years the opening of the road, part of it through unexplored territory, had been discussed. Money was finally appropriated and a plan developed calling for forts from the Missouri to the Columbia. That there ought to be military protection for the project was evident, and for once a mounted force appeared to be the most economical solution. Debates in Congress on organizing this new force brought out the point that mounted troops could be used to carry the mail, as messengers, and to guard settlers going west. One member of Congress said he would vote for raising the regiment just to restore a rifle regiment to the Army. Although the United States had once been the rifle country of the world, he contended, it had fallen behind the European nations. There was not one rifle regiment in the establishment. He further stated that the unit should be mounted because, he thought, it was idle to send infantry against Indians who would be on horseback." - ARMOR-CAVALRY Part I: Regular Army and Army Reserve by Mary Lee Stubbs and Stanley Russell Connor OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF MILITARY HISTORY UNITED STATES ARMY WASHINGTON, D.C., 1969 The Regiment of Mounted Riflemen was authorized by an Act of Congress on May 19, 1846 as a new organization in the United States Army: a regiment of riflemen, mounted to provide greater mobility than the Infantry and equipped with percussion rifles to provide greater range and more accurate firepower than the Infantry's muskets or the Dragoon's carbines. The riflemen's bugle featured in the regiments insignia from inception. This regiment had initially been designated for use on the Oregon Trail but was diverted at its origin into Mexican War service. Its animals were lost on the way, so only two companies, mounted on Mexican horses, acted as cavalry. The rest, armed with Model 1941 rifles, bayonets, and flintlock pistols, fought on foot.
War with Mexico: The Mounted Riflemen, fighting dismounted at Chapultepec, earned from General Winfield Scott, Commanding General of the Army, the compliment that became their motto: "Brave Rifles! Veterans! You have been baptized in fire and blood and have come out steel."**

During the war the regiment was broken up and the companies scattered. As in the Seminole War they often fought as infantry, but their usual missions were reconnaissance and pursuit. "General Orders Number 2 of February 13, 1850 authorized a perpendicular trumpet* as the headgear insignia of mounted rifles. In 1861 the Regular Army Regiment of Mounted Riflemen was in the Department of New Mexico and on August 3rd was renamed the Third Cavalry Regiment. The mounted rifle headgear insignia and green branch color were replaced by cavalry insignia and colors - although the green color and bugle remain present in the unit's patch up to today. It stayed the 3rd Cavalry thru WWII, when it was redesignated 3D Cavalry Group Mechanized, and is today's 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment

*original footnote - Foot rifle units did not have the trumpet (bugle) as an insignia (this is incorrect,unless literally meaning trumpet, as may be judged by the shako crests and buttons of the Rifle Regiment in 1814 which had a bugle - The horn is European in origin and the symbol for the light infantry (also called Jaegers (Hunters), voltigeurs (Vaulters), or Legere (Light). Light and Rifle infantry used the horn/bugle to issue commands on the battlefield as opposed to the drums of the Line Infantry)

"The green facing on the distinctive uniform authorized for the Regiment of Mounted Riflemen in 1851 and its gold trumpet insignia are shown by the color of the shield and by the crest."

United service: a monthly review of military and naval affairs, Volume 14 - THE REGIMENT OF MOUNTED RIFLEMEN OR FROM PUEBLA TO THE CITY OF MEXICO, 1895, pp. 301-313

The Mounted Riflemen of the Northwest Territory By Fred Lockley The Overland monthly, 1918

** Surprising research reveals there may be a controversy over "who said what to whom and when" as concerns this motto.  Simply put, quite likely the Commanding General may have honored both the Mounted Riflemen and the Voltigeur and Foot Riflemen Regiment with a similar stirring accolades. One regiment continued in existence to incorporate this legacy into a stirring motto, the other regiment was disbanded at war's end - for greater discussion see  below....

Contention: If not recognized by the Rangers, at least the Regiment of Mounted Riflemen - today's 3rd Armored cavalry regiment - should have the "smarts" to add the first US Regiment of Riflemen to its legacy.

The U. S. Regiment of Voltigeurs & Foot Riflemen (1847-48)

Voltigeurs - literally meaning "vaulter" or "leaper" : skirmisher
Voltigeur - a picked company of irregular riflemen in each regiment of the French infantry, lightly armed skirmisher.
Voltigeurs — "Picked companies of irregular riflemen in French regiments. They are selected for courage, great activity, and small stature. It is their privilege to lead the attack." - A Dictionary of Military Terms By Edward Samuel Farrow 1918 Voltigeurs - "Soldats de certaines unites d'elite d'infanterie legere (XIXe siecle). Soldiers of certain elite units of light infantry (19th century)." The US Army went through various phases of French Army influence on uniform design as well as organization and tactics, e.g. the forage cap or kepi, Souaves, Napoleonic decisive battle

A U. S. Regiment of Voltigeurs & Foot Riflemen was organized by Act of Congress, 11 February 1847 for and during the war with Mexico, and disbanded 25 August 1848. It was Commanded by Colonel Timothy Patrick Andrews, 16 February 1847 thru 20 July 1848; Lieutenant-Colonel J. E. Johnson, 16 February 1847 thru 19 July 1848; Major G. A. Caldwell, 3 March 1847 thru 25 August 1848; Major G. H. Talcott, 3 March 1847 thru 25 August 1848. Company K may have been Reno's Battery.

"2- Recruiting for Ten additional Regiments.
For the 9th and 10th Infantry,) Col. J. BANKHEAD, 2d Artillery, Superintend’t, Head Quarters, New York.
For the 11th Infantry, and Voltigeurs,) Maj. E.W. MORGAN, 11th Regiment, Superintend’t, Baltimore.
For the 12th, 13th and 14th Regiments,) Grig. Gen. G. M. Brooke, Com’dg West’n Division, (assisted by
Maj. A. G. BLANCHARD, 12th Reg.) –Head Qrs., N. Orleans.
For the 15th and 16th Regiments- Lt. Col. J. ERVING, 2d Artillery, Cincinatti."
NNR 72.389-72.390 August 14, 1847 general orders on the recruiting service

Various Descriptions:
"At the start of the Mexican War, Congress tried to get along with just eight infantry regiments of Regulars, but in doing so gave the President power to expand their companies to one hundred enlisted men during the war. Ten months after hostilities commenced, it was necessary to change this policy and add nine new regiments-with the same organization as the old ones-to the Regular infantry. Eight of them, as was customary, bore numbers, the 9th through the 16th; but the other got a name. It was called the Regiment of Voltigeurs and Foot Riflemen. Half of this unit was to be mounted, the other half on foot, and each horseman was paired with a foot soldier who was to get up behind him for rapid movements. This arrangement was never executed, and the Voltigeurs became in fact a regiment of foot riflemen, armed with the same rifle (a muzzle-loader) as the Mounted Riflemen. Quite by chance, the regiment included a company of mountain howitzers and war rockets, but it was not linked with the riflemen tactically, nor were the rockets and howitzers ever used together. Although raised as Regulars, the nine new infantry regiments created during the Mexican War were disbanded when the war was over. .. The Regiment of Mounted Riflemen remained active after the Mexican War, but in 1861 it was redesignated as the 3d Cavalry."

"The theory of the voltigeur regiment was that it should be composed of a battalion of infantry and a battalion of mounted men; and that both were to use the same horses. In other words a horse was to carry two mounted men and though this had been found practicable in Napoleon's wars, it did not work well in our army and the .. (illegible) was still called voltigeurs, as the picked riflemen in France are now called." Williamsport Daily Gazette and Bulletin, Williamsport, PA, 21 March 1884.

"The new regiments (which brought the regular army up to 1356 officers and 29,534 men) were to serve during the war and then be disbanded. One of them was the Third Dragoons. Another consisted of voltigeurs, "theoretically an equal number of infantry and of mounted ; men (the former to be taken up on the horses of the latter, when celerity movement should be desired) with a battery of small guns that could taken apart and transported on mules (Niles, May 15, 1847, p. 161); but practically the Voltigeurs were foot-riflemen (Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 924). The regiments destined for Scott were the following: (Brig. Gen. Pierce's g.) 9 Inf. from N. Eng. under Col. Ransom, 12 Inf. from N. and S. Car., Ark. and Texas under Lieut. Col. Bonham in the absence of Col. ...lson, and 15 Inf. from Ohio, Mich., Wis. and Iowa under Lt. Col. the absence of Col. Morgan; (Brig. Gen. Cadwalader's brig.) Inf. from Pa., Del. and Md., under Col. Ramsey, 14 Inf. from Ill.,Tenn. and La. under Col. Trousdale, Voltigeurs from Pa., Md., Va., Ky. and Miss, under Col. Andrews (Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 924). Each Regiment was theoretically to consist of 851 men including 47 officers i.), but the two brigades going to Scott were not expected to muster above 3500. Scott was authorized to change the organization should the exigencies of the campaign require (Ho. 60;'30, 1, p. 922)..." Footnote 24 
- The War with Mexico, Volume 2 by Justin Harvey Smith, 1919, pp 363-364

"The Regiment of United States Voltigeurs & Foot Riflemen (regulars), was (supposed to be) an elite regiment, inspired by units originally in the French army designed as special skirmishing companies attached to each infantry regiment; the American version was a dedicated regiment comprised of light infantry carrying rifled muskets (riflemen) with one company being a rocket & mountain howitzer battery." - Webbs in the Military -

"At its inception The U.S. regiment of Voltigeurs and Foot Riflemen was envisioned as a combined command containing dragoons, infantry and artillery. Half of the men were supposed to be mounted on horses. For rapid movement, each foot riflemen, would climb up behind the saddle of the voltigeur. The men's table of organization also featured a company of mountain howitzers and rockets. In actual practice, however, the Voltigeur Regiment functioned as infantry, and its men gave a good account of themselves with the famous Model 1841 ('Mississippi')rifle, the Army's first general-issue percussion shoulder arm."
- Urwin "United States Infantry an Illustrated History," 1988, p.70

"The Voltiguers (sp), in the role of light infantry or foot riflemen, used the Harpers Ferry Model 1841 Rifle, .54 caliber, the first general issue percussion long arm to be made at the government armory, referred to as the ‘Mississippi Rifle’ because of its use by Jefferson Davis’ 1st Regiment Mississippi Infantry. The rest of the Army did not switch to rifles until 1855. The Mississippi Rifle was a shorter weapon than either the huge 1835 or 1842 musket, lighter and easier to wield. Although not issued in great numbers, some may have carried the 1847 Colt .44 ‘Walker’ revolver; perhaps a few, full of bravado, packed bowie knives in their kits."

"...Hardee's manual was written for the intial purpose of training the new regiment of Voltiguers that was to be raised for the regular US Army. The Voltiguers would be a true "light infantry" regiment, armed with rifles, and would function as such on the battlefield, providing skirmish and screening forces to the main battle line. They would have had all new equipments and uniforms, and Hardee used those patterns as examples for his illustrations. Couple this with the regiments of Dragoons and Mounted Rifles, and you have a very "European" styled army. What transpired to throw all of this off kilter, of course, was the Civil War. Suddenly, we needed several armies RIGHT NOW! and so the fine tuning and tactical experimentation and evolutions were set aside to concentrate on the more important task of raising and training the volunteer army. Americans took a lot from the french, from Bayonet drill to caliber of musket to design/style of clothing. However, we also gleened much from other countries during this period. Basically, we took what seemed to work and/or function the best, and incorporate it into out own system(s). Thus, the Dress Hat, copied from the Austrians, along with the pleated frock coat. French-style uniforms and weapons, and English organisation and linear formations. Actually, we developed the two rank formation during the rev-war, the British copied it then, and then we switched back to the three-rank for a time, finally settling on the two-rank system. But I digress....Anyway, it's an interesting period to research. Almost a military/industrial rennaissance of the New World." - 1st Maine Authentic Campaigner Post


from a contemporary account:
"10 Mar 1847- Voltigeur Regiment.
It gives us pleasure to state that Mr. L. McIntosh* has been appointed to the new Regiment of Voltigeurs. His rank is First. Lieutenant. John Forsyth, Esq., of Columbus,(Ga.) is Second Lieutenant in the same Company. The Regiment will be commanded by Colonel T. P. Andrews, well known as an efficient an experienced officer from the regular service. The undress or service uniform of this regiment will be a dark grey frock-coat, single breasted, with nine regimental buttons down the front, conforming in other respects to the frock-coat of the Artillery. Scales-or counter straps for the shoulder, in lieu of epaulettes, with the usual insignia, denoting the rank. [*= son of Colonel James Simmons McIntosh]
Buttons-Gilded as for the Mounted Riflemen, with the letter V.
Trousers-Dark grey cloth, with stripe of the same colour, edged with yellow cord.
Sword-Same as for infantry.
Shoulder Belt-Black patent leather, as for the Infantry.-Sav. Republican.

According to another source, The Regiment of Voltigeurs & Foot Riflemen, as with the regiments of infantry, under the Act"of Congress approved February 11, 1847, were uniformed as follows:
"the frock coat was of dark blue-gray cloth, single-breasted. Scales or counter straps for the shoulders were worn in lieu of the epaulettes, with the usual insignia designating the rank of the officer. Trousers were of dark-blue cloth with a stripe of the same color down the outer seam, edged with a yellow cord. As a badge of distinction, non-commissioned officers were permitted to wear upon the sleeves of their undress jackets chevrons of lace."  
-   (note - Albany GA news article says grey trousers)

Philip Katcher's research cites Andrews in establishing the fact that the "grey" uniform was never issued or worn:

Katcher, Philip. Sharpshooters of the American Civil War 1861-65. Osprey Military Warrior Series No. 60. Osprey, 2002.p.13

- MCH-Journal A-0135 Frederick P. Todd The Curious Case of the Voltigeur Uniform 4 2 44

In the Civil War, Virginia units most likely used the Voltigeurs Eagle buttons since the letter "V" was conveniently embossed on the shield: "A good many of these buttons show up in eastern sites occupied by Virginia troops, too many to account for simply recycling of old uniforms. It is likely that some of the Virginia militia units purchased them as a stock item."

"...rare Confederate V buckle...believed that these were first used by the Voltigeurs in the Mexican War and that later many Virginia Militia regiments were issued the plate during the Civil War..."


" 1852, the writer reported in favor of the gray uniform and system for the designation of rank, which in many respects was identical with that adopted by the Rebels, this color and system received the full endorsement of KEARNY, who dwelt with emphasis on the superior advantages of grey," "NB-None is more beautiful or striking than the old national GREY, faced and trimmed with bright yellow somewhat similar to the dress of the Voltigeurs, or Foot-Riflemen (See 1" 1004, U. S. Army Regulations 1847)." "...At morning and evening twilight; in foggy, muggy, and rainy weather, a body of men thus clothed would be undistinguishable at a very short distance, and amid the smoke of battle they would be swallowed up at once in the clouds of kindred hue. Grey and yellow, or gold, form the richest dress in the world ; without bullion, it is the cheapest, taking into consideration its serviceability, it is national to a great degree, and last, not least certainly, it is the least fatal to its wearer." 
Personal and Military History of Philip Kearny, Major-general United States John Watts De Peyster, 1870, pp. 163-164

Seemingly, this understanding of the advantages of grey (from the War of 1812 to the Voltiguers) was not lost on the likes of Davis, Lee and Johnston - resulting in "Confederate Grey!"

More importantly, as related by Upton, the grey-coated voltigeur's combined-arms concept, was proposed to be incorporated into a Confederate Legion - the Hampton Legion! -albeit short-lived.*  Yet, how important the Legion legacy and combined arms concept was to the CSA military authorities may be gauged by how many were formed - one authority  has counted about 10 CSA "Legions" - as so named:
On the same day May 21, 1861, that the an "...act was approved to put in operation the government under the permanent Constitution of the Confederate States... the sum of $39,375,138 was appropriated for additional expenses in the military service for the year ending February 18 1862. Of the above amount the sum of $550,485 was appropriated for the pay of 1 regiment of legionary formation composed of 1 company of artillery 4 companies of cavalry and 6 companies of voltigeurs. This regiment was modeled substantially on the Legion of the United States (abandoned)."
- The military policy of the United States; by Bvt. Maj. Gen. Emory Upton, By Emory Upton, 1907, p.455
- Confederate Organizational Structure-Legion - Johan Steele and ME Wolf threads (the Union had several as well)

Uniforms of the Civil War: An Illustrated Guide for Historians, Collectors Ron Field, Robin Smith, 2005, p. 161


Of the 10 companies, 5 received some sort of preliminary collective training but time was of the essence and the other 5 sailed strait from various US ports to Vera Cruz as these contemporary news articles relate:

Matamoras Flag, 15 May 1847:
" the camp of instruction, (Palo Alto,) fourteen miles below this place....Five companies of voltiguers, Captains Bernard, Biddle, Howard, Edwards and Churchill....These troops will remain at Palo Alto under strong discipline, and from thence, it is rumored, transferred to Vera Cruz."

Richmond Whig - 1 June 1847:
"On the same day, Col. T. P. Andrews of the Voltiguers, accompanied by Capt. J. D. Blair, with 120 men of that corps, and Lt. Charles F. Vernon with 35 men, sailed from New Orleans for Vera Cruz, on board the steamer Massachusetts, on board of which were the rocket and howitzer batteries belonging to the Voltiguer regiment"

Richmond Whig - 9 June 1847
"Voltiguers. Capt. Jones company of Voltiguers, with 2d Lieuts. Robt. Forsyth and Larned, sailed from Savannah on the 30th ult. in the brig Magnolia, Capt. Leslie, for Vera Cruz

RICHMOND ENQUIRER - June 22, 1847 - Latest from Vera Cruz
"The steamship Massachusetts, Capt. Wood arrived at this port on Thursday last, with a detachment of the Voltigeur Regiment, consisting of 292 men and 13 officers, as follows: Col. T. P. Andrews, commanding : Dr. Tyler, Surgeon.-Company B. 71 men –Capt. Oscar E. Edwards; 1st Lieut. John Blakey: 2nd Lieut. James R. May. Company E, 109 men-Capt. James S. Blair; 1st Lieut. W. S. Walker, 2nd Lieuts. Geo. R. Kiger and Wasington Terrett. Company 11, 77 men-Capt. Moses J Barnard; 1st Lieut. Jas. Tilton; 2nd Lieuts. Theodore D. Cochran and W. I Mattin. Also Maj. Bennett, Paymaster, U.S.A .; Capt, Montgomery, Quartermaster; Dr. Shields and Mr. Foster, and a detachment of company A, 35 men, 2nd Lieut. Charles F. Vernon, commanding."

Norfolk Beacon - 5 July 1847:
"Military Movements. The Norfolk Beacon of Tuesday says: We understand that the barque Margaret Hugg will sail from Hampton Roads, today, for the Gulf of Mexico, with Capt. Caldwell’s company of Voltigeurs, and 103 Voltigeur recruits, under command of Lt. Marriot, on board. The following is a list of officers of Captain Calwell’s company: Jas. H. Calwell, captain, John W. Leigh, 1st Lieutenant; G.W. Carr, 2d tlo; Isaac Smith, 3d do. Officers of the recruits from Baltimore—J.C. Marriot, 1st Lieutenant, J.C. Wynder. 2d do."

Meanwhile, 6 of 10 companies of the Voltigeurs begin the march to Mexico City without the remaining 4, which would "catch-up" at a later date, if ever..

Richmond Enquirer - 9 July 1847:
"The force under the command of Gen. Pillow left Vera Cruz on the 18th (June), escorting a train of about 125 wagons. The force amounted to nearly 1, 800 men, and consisted of the 14th infantry, and a portion of the 15th, three companies of the 3d and 6th Infantry, six companies of the Voltigeurs, a detachment of the 3d dragoons and six howitzers. That such a train would meet with serious resistance from guerrilla parties was not to be expected.."

- various from Voltigeur search at

Order of Battle - March to Mexico City
1st Division (worth)
Garland's brigade: 2d Art., 3d Art., 4th Inf
Clarke's brigade: 3d, 6th, 8th infs; Co A, 2d Art., Light Art.Bn.
2nd Division (Twiggs)
P.F. Smith's brigade: 1st Art., 3d Inf., Rifle Regt.
Riley's brigade: 4th Art.; 2d and 7th infs, Engr. Co., ord. Co, Light Co. K, 1st Art.
Pillow's Division
Pierce's brigade: 9th, 12th, 15th infs.
Cadawaler's (sp) brigade: Voltiguers, 11th and 14th infs, Light Co. I, 1st Art.
Quitman's Division
Shield's brigade: New York regt., South Carolina Regt., Marine detachment.
Watson's brigade: 2nd Pennsylvania Regt.; H Co., 3d Art.; C Co., 3d Dragoons.
Harney's brigade: 1st Bn., Cavalry; 2d Bn., Cavalry.
The above lists appears in Emory Upton, The Military Policy of the United States, p. 214.
(cited in John S.D. Eisenhower, "So Far From God" The U.S. War with Mexico 1846-48, p.307.)

NB- note the use of title "Rifle Regt."

Combat Actions Timeline:
The Voltigeurs, some or part, were engaged at:
National Bridge, Mexico, 11 - 12 June 1847, (Company B engaged);
Rinconada, Mexico, 24 June 1847, (Companies B & F engaged);
Pasa Ovejas, Mexico, 10 August 1847, (Companies D & K engaged);
National Bridge, Mexico, 12 August 1847, (Companies D & K engaged);
Cerro Gordo, Mexico, 15 August 1847, (Companies D & K engaged);
Las Animas, Mexico, 19 August 1847, (Companies D & K engaged) ;
San Antonio, Contreras, Padierna & Churubusco, Mexico, 19 - 20 August 1847,
(Companies A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, & K engaged);
El Molino del Rey, Mexico, 8 September 1847, (entire reg''t engaged);
Chapultepec & Mexico City, 12-14 September 1847, (entire regt engaged)*
Puebla, Mexico, 13 September thru 12 October 1847, (detachment engaged);
Huamantla, Mexico, 9 October 1847, (Company K engaged);
Atlixco, Mexico, 19 October 1847, (Company K engaged).

The Regiment of Voltigeurs arrived at Fort McHenry, Aug. 23, 1848 and shortly thereafter was disbanded.

see DESCENDANTS of MEXICAN WAR VETERANS - Honoring Our Ancestors - Roll of Honor for listing of individual voltigeur who were wounded and killed in the service of their country:

Campaign summary:
"...voltigeurs, (were) a regiment of regulars, in Cadwalader's brigade, Pillow's division...At Churubusco the voltigeurs were held in reserve. At Moliiio del Rey they supported Duncan's battery, and in "Worth's report of the battle Johnston's name is mentioned with other officers of Cadwalader's brigade. The voltigeurs lost 98 of their 341 men. At Chapultepec, Pillow was wounded and Cadwalader commanded the division and led it up the hill to the castle. The voltigeurs were prominent in the assault and their standard was the first planted on the ramparts from which the Mexicans were driven. Colonel Andrews led the left wing and Lieutenant-Colonel Johnston the right and the latter received three slight wounds which did not prevent his leading his men."
- The twentieth century biographical dictionary of notable Americans ...edited by Rossiter Johnson, John Howard Brown


"Besides Major Generals Pillow and Quitman, Brigadier Generals Shields, Smith, and Cadwallader, the following are the officers and corps most distinguished in those brilliant operations: The voltigeur regiment, in two detachments, commanded respectively by Col. Andrews and Lieut. Colonel Johnstone-the latter mostly in the lead, accompanied by Major Caldwell, Captains Barnard and Biddle, of the same regiment-the former the first to land a regimental color, and the latter among the first in the assault; -the storming party of Worth’s division under Capt. McKenzie, 2d artillery, with Lieut. Seldon, 8th infantry, early on the ladder and badly wounded; Lieut. Armistead, 6th infantry, the first to leap into the ditch to play a ladder; Lieut. Rodgers of the 4th, and J. P. Smith of the 5th infantry-both mortally wounded; - the 9 infantry, under Col. Ranson, who was killed while gallantly leading that gallant regiment; the 15th infantry under Lt. Col. Howard and Major Woods, with Capt. Chase, whose company gallantly carried the redoubt, midway up the acclivity; Col. Clarke’s brigade, (Worth’s division) consisting of the 5th , 8th, and part of the 6th regiment of infantry, commanded respectively, by Cap. Chapman, Major Montgomery, and Lieut. Edward Johnson-the latter specially noticed, with Liets. Longstreet (badly wounded-advancing-colors in hand) Picket and Merchant-the last three of the 8the infantry; -portions of the United States marines, New York, South Carolina,and 2d Pennsylvania volunteers, which delayed with their division (Quitman’s) by the hot engagements below, arrived just in time to participate in the assault of the heights-particularly a detachment, under Lieut. Reid, New York volunteers, consisting of a company of the same,with one of the marines; and another detachment, a portion of the storming party (Twiggs’division serving with Quitman) under ST. Steele, 2d infantry-after the fall of Lieut. Ganit, 7th infantry...The mountain-howitzer battery, under Lieutenant Reno of the Ordnance, deserves, also, to be particularly mentioned. Attached to the voltigeurs, it followed the movements of that regiment and again won applause...."
- Report of Major General Scott [No. 34] Headquarters of the Army National Palace of Mexico September 18, 1847
"There has been controversy as to who first raised an American flag on the heights of Chapultepec. Some one having incautiously said that General Read performed the gallant act, several claimants for the honor came forward.The fact that the lion-hearted Read did not first plant the colors of his regiment on Chapultepec robs him of none of the laurels he won in Mexico. It was Captain Barnard, of Philadelphia, who seized the flag of the Voltigeurs, and placed it triumphantly on the captured works of the enemy. Read, while gallantly bearing the colors unfurled in the charge, was dangerously wounded, and his name appeared on the first list of the killed. No man who knew him doubts but for this Read would have done all that Barnard accomplished.
The flag of the Voltigeurs, first planted at Chapultepec, is now in Louisville, in the possession of Isaac, a brother of Colonel George Alfred Caldwell, who, with Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph E. Johnston,1 led the assault. It is shattered and battle-torn, and the staff shows marks of the fierce storm through which it was carried.
The reports of Generals Scott and Pillow, and Colonel Andrews, the commander of the Voltigeurs, and Ripley's History, all give to Captain Barnard the honor of first planting the regimental- colors on Chapultepec. General Pillow, in his report, says :
" Colonel Andrews, whose regiment so distinguished itself and commander by this brilliant charge, as also Lieutenant-Colonel Johnston and Major Caldwell, whose activity enabled them to lead the assault, have greatly distinguished themselves by their gallantry and daring. Captain Barnard, with distinguished gallantry, seized the colors of his regiment upon the fall of the color-bearer, scaled the wall with them unfurled, and has the honor of planting the first American standard in the works."
When the Voltigeurs were disbanded at Baltimore, a number of the interesting properties of the regiment were forwarded by Lieutenant Colonel Johnston to Colonel Caldwell. Among these was the regimental flag.
Colonel Caldwell was drafted in 1863. The law required he should personally appear before the board of enrollment for release. Knowing his physical disability, from age and chronic rheumatism, the board wrote him, if he had reason to fear he could not get exempted, he might bring his Chapultepec flag with him, and carry it out to the Taylor barracks."
1- Afterward a rebel general, and now a member of the United States House of Representatives, 46th Congress, from the third district of Virginia.

- History of the flag of the United States of America: and of the naval and George Henry Preble
pp 373 - 374


Captain Joseph Hooker Assistant Adjutant General for the defense duly sworn...
Question by defense What knowledge has witness of General Pillow having continued to direct the operations of the forces after he was wounded which made the successful assault upon Chapultepec on the 13th of September state also what forces carried that work was it those under his command or other forces if other forces state what forces they were Answer On the morning of the 13th three regiments from General Pillow's Division with a storming party from General Worth's Division were ordered to move to the assault of Chapultepec Four companies of the Voltigeur Regiment under Lieutenant Colonel Johnston followed by the storming party under Captain Mackenzie were the first troops put in motion The balance of the Voltigeur Regiment under Colonel Andrews were the next to move to the attack Colonel Johnston moved outside of the wall surrounding the grounds at the base of the hill at Chapultepec the others passed through the Molino del Rey into the inside of the walls The Ninth Infantry followed the Voltigeurs and formed line of battle directly after passing through the gate into this field at the base of Chapultepec The Fifteenth Regiment of Infantry followed the Ninth and fornied line on the Ninth In that order they moved forward to the attack With slight interruptions they progressed until they reached the ditch inclosing part of the work on the summit of Chapultepec at which place the Fifteenth the Ninth and a part of the Voltigeur Regiment and the head of the storming party under Captain Mackenzie were stopped by the wall inclosing the summit of the hill Many of these men entered the ditch and many of them concealed themselves behind rocks which lay upon the surface of the ground The Voltigeurs that I refer to were particularly a part of Colonel Andrew's party appeared at this time to be under the command of Major Caldwell Colonel Johnston's command was more to the right The hill prevented me from seeing the main body of the command While these troops were occupying this position the fire from the crest of the work directly in our front ceased I saw several pieces discharged in the air behind the breastwork but the Mexicans appeared to be afraid to expose even their hands above the crest of the work A fire however was delivered by the Mexicans from the roofs of the houses and from the windows and at that time their right flank was occupied by the enemy The fire did but little execution as the shots were most of them high The troops I have named or the main body of them were kept in this position I should think at least fifteen minutes it seemed to me much longer waiting for the ladders to come up When the assaulting column was put in motion these ladders were in rear of the storming party After waiting some time with the troops at the top of the hill I went after the ladders In descending the hill and nearly at the redan about halfway up the hill 1 saw the head of the Second Pennsylvania Regiment the head of the South Carolina Regiment and what I took to be the New York Regiment for the colors were with that party but which I have since been told were only two companies of the New York Regiment under Lieutenant Reid The last named party were a little in the advance of the others but they were all moving up the hill and moving by a flank These troops as I stood near the redan and facing down the hill were on my left on my right was the head of Colonel Clark's Brigade On reaching the foot of the hill I found General Pillow wounded I asked him where the ladders were and said to him that we had more troops than were necessary at the top of the hill I asked him for authority to take a regiment to attack the right flank of the enemv He told me to take any regiment and as the Eighth was on its way up the hill I took the Sixth which was directly in rear of the Eighth On reaching the point on which the attack was intended to be made we found that the ascent was very difficult There was no cover and that flank was occupied by the enemy and they were firing very rapidly I then directed Captain Hoffman to halt and move to the rear of Chapultepec with his command around the hill I then returned to the troops who had been in advance and reached the summit of the hill in time to see the first ladder planted to enter the work It was planted in the bottom of the ditch with one or two others the others were laid across the ditch The first man that I saw enter the work and I think I saw the first one was a private I took to be of the Voltigeur Regiment him were officers and men rushing over the work in great rapidity I think that the greater part of them belonged to General Division and to the regiments of his division I have before named I think that the first officer that went into the work belonged the Voltigeur Regiment and I know that the first colors entered the work were those of the Voltigeur Regiment I entered the work and I was not among the foremost terreplein was clear of our troops except those that had on the side of which I speak We had a number of men belonging to our party by the cadets they appeared to be who were occupying the upper terreplein the ground on side of the work opposite to the point of our attack would not have fired upon us had an enemy been nearer to than we were I liave said that the Voltigeurs Ninth Regiments with a portion of the storming party were the as a body to enter Chapultepec there may have been individuals of other regiments but the regiments I have named started in advance and they kept it until they reached the of the hill where they were so densely crowded together that was impossible for any large body of men to pass through them."
- Memoirs of a Maryland volunteer: War with Mexico, in the years 1846-7-8 by John Reese Kenly, pp 455-459

"CHAP LXIX An Act to continue a Pension to Christine Barnard Widow of the Brevet Major Moses J Barnard United States Army Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the States of America in Congress assembled That the Secretary of the Interior be and he is hereby directed to continue upon the pension roll the rate of thirty dollars per month from and after the fourth day of July eighteen hundred and fifty seven when her pension expired the name Christine Barnard widow of the late Brevet Major Moses J Barnard captain in company H regiment of voltigeurs who was twice wounded planting the American colors upon the parapet of Chepultepec while storming that fortress and who died from disease contracted in and greatly enhanced by hardships and fatigue of the Mexican campaign said to be held by her or by her children in accordance with existing laws reference to the widows and children of those who died from wounds disease received or contracted during the Mexican war APPROVED June 1 1858"
- The congressional globe, Volume 47 By United States. Congress, Library of Congress 

illustrations from "Joseph E. Johnston: A Civil War Biography" by Craig L. Symonds, 1994 - 464 pages

Richmond Whig (citing the Star) - 22 March 1848:
Mexico, February 20, 1848.
Orders—No. 3.
"The third brigade (Col. Riley's)* was reviewed and inspected on the plains of Molino del Rey on the 21st ult. By Major Buchanan, Acting Inspector General. It is needless, says the Star, to speak of the perfection of this command when it is known that the 2d Artillery, 2d, 4th and 5th Infantry and Voltiguers compose the command."

RG - This post-battle organization reflects consolidation - see Upton's Order of Battle above.

1868 - NY Times: CHAPULTEPEC.; The Flag of the Voltigeurs and the Disputed Honors.

"I got an officer of the voltigeurs, with a mountain howitzer and men to work it, to go with me....The gun was carried to the belfry and put together....The effect of this gun upon the troops about the gate of the city was so marked that General Worth saw it from his position. ( 3) He was so pleased that he sent a staff officer, Lieutenant Pemberton--later Lieutenant-General commanding the defences of Vicksburg--to bring me to him. He expressed his gratification at the services the howitzer in the church steeple was doing, saying that every shot was effective, and ordered a captain of voltigeurs to report to me with another howitzer to be placed along with the one already rendering so much service. I could not tell the General that there was not room enough in the steeple for another gun, because he probably would have looked upon such a statement as a contradiction from a second lieutenant. I took the captain with me, but did not use his gun."  p.57
- Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant, by Ulysses S. Grant, 1885

Grant at the capture of the city of Mexico / E. Leutze.
From the original picture (published 1860-70), painted by the late Emanuel Leutze, expressly for Mr. Leslie, and published as a supplement to Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper.

Key sources:
- El puchero: or, A mixed dish from Mexico, embracing General Scott's campaign, with sketches of military life, in field and camp, of the character of the country, manners and ways of the people, etc, by Richard McSherry, David Holmes Conrad, Lippincott, Grambo & co., 1850
includes Regimental Officer Lists
- Mexican War veterans: a complete roster of the regular and volunteer troops, by William Hugh Robarts, 1887, p. 33

Harper's magazine, Volume 11, 1855,

-THE UNITED STATES CAVALRY IN THE MEXICAN WAR, by W.B. Lane, Journal of the United States Cavalry Association, Volume 3, by United States Cavalry Association, 1890

- History of the Mexican War by Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox,1892

- The war with Mexico, Volume 1 by Justin Harvey Smith, 1919

- The war with Mexico, Volume 2 by Justin Harvey Smith, 1919

- Center of Military History Mexican War Published Material

- Mexican War by the Aztec Club of 1847


- The Mexican-American War and the Media, 1845-1848


Contention - The U. S. Regiment of Voltigeurs & Foot Riflemen (as with the 1808-1821 Rifle Regiments) deserves mention, if not formal inclusion, in any discussion of the heritage and lineage of today's Rangers - its battle record speaks for itself and the storming of Chapultepec castle was in the Ranger assault and spearhead tradition.


The General Scott "Come out Steel" Tribute Controversy?:

In his 1885 "Notes of the Mexican War 1846-47-48, author J. Jacob Oswandel, who served in Capt. William F. Small's Co. C, First Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, chronicled Scott's famous "come out steel speech" as directed to the Volitigeurs and not the Mounted Riflemen. Memories are fuzzy things but this mention was not in passing. Rather, in a speech given to the Scott Legion  on April 18, 1872 , at a banquet in Philadelphia, in honor of of the 25th anniversary of Cerro Gordo, he remembered and recorded his recollecton in this way:

"Oh yes, some of our comrades will yet remember when Gen. Scott rode from regiment to regiment, thanking God and his heroic men for their brilliant victories; and when he came to the rifle Voltigeur regiment — a regiment that lost nearly all its commissioned officers and more than one-half of its men—he noticed their thin ranks and shattered banners and wept, saying, "You have gone through fire and blood and have come out steel." [Applause.]

Oswandel then further  opines:
"Who has ever heard of more heroic deeds? who has ever read of more triumphant achievements? I have not, and it remains for future historians to give a correct idea of the Mexican war. There is not a parallel in all the bright pages of the history of the world like the campaign of Mexico. [Applause.] " "Yet in the face of all these brilliant achievements, staring in the eyes of our people, we are not recognized by our government."

- Notes of the Mexican war 1846-47-48: Comprising incidents, adventures and J. Jacob Oswandel 1885

- did Oswandel correctly recall the events and units praised that day - might he have confused the Voltigeur Riflemen for the Mounted Riflemen?
- would Oswandel not have been corrected by someone on his mistake? or
- have corrected his mistake before publishing such a claim 13 years later? or
- considering another common military explanation, could General Scott have praised each unit with remarkably similar speeches and both deservedly so? (If he did, he would NOT have been the first or last General to do so!);
- But, if Oswandel is accurate, and the praise from Scott was singular, one might also conclude that this would not be the first time that one combat unit received credit for another unit's efforts"




Timothy P Andrews born in Ire apt from DC

Lieut Colonel
Joseph E Johnston born in Va apt from Va

Geo A Caldwell born in Ky apt from Ky
Geo H Talcott NY Md

John W Tyler born in Va apt from DC
Asst Surgeons
James L Clarke born in Va apt from Va
Arch B Campbell Pa Pa

Alexander P Churchill born in Ky apt from Ky
Oscar E Edwards Va Va
John Jones Ga
Jas D Blair Ky Miss
Chas J Biddle Pa Pa
Jno E Howard Md Md
Moses J Barnard Mass Pa
Jos J Archer Md Md
Jos H Calwell Md Va
Jos H Walker Tenn Ark

First Lieutenants
Jos 0 Marriatt born in Md apt from Md
Birket D Frey  Va Va
Jas Tilton  Del Md
Leonidas Mcintosh u Fla Ga
Alex H Cross  DC Md
HC Longnecker Pa Pa
Jos H Woolford Md Md
Wm S Walker Pa Miss
Jno M Blakey Va Va
Jno W Leigh II Va Va

Second Lieutenants
Chas F Vernon born in Ky apt from Ky 
Robt C Forsyth  Ga Ga
Jos A Frost II Md Md
Theo D Cochran Del Pa
Geo W Carr Va Va
James M Winder Md Md
Van Rens Otey Va Va
Robt Swan Md Md
Gas S Kintzing Pa Pa
Geo R Kiger Va Miss
Wm J Martin _ Pa
Isaac W Smith Va Va
Michael C Hooper Md Md
Jos H Smythe Md Md
Jas R May Va Va
Edwin C Marvin Conn Pa
Robt H Archer Md Md
Wash Terrett Va Va
Frank H Larned Mich Mich
Jos E Slaughter Va Va 

-  Mexican War veterans: a complete roster of the regular and volunteer troops, by William Hugh Robarts, 1887, p.33

Excerpts on individual Voltigeur officers:

ANDREWS, Colonel Timothy
Born In Ireland Appointed from DC 1 Post Master 22 May 1822, Col Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 to 20 July 1848, Lieut Col Dep Post Master General 17 Dee 1851, Col Post Master General  6 Sept 1862, Retired 29 Nov 1864, Died 11 March 1868, Bvt Brig Gen 13 Sept 1847 for gallant and meritorious conduct in the Battle of Chapultepec
-- List of officers of the army of the United States from 1779 to 1900 William Henry Powell, 1900 (RG note - hereafter Powell citation omitted for listed Voltigeur officers..usually following given name; abbreviated style indicates Powell is source)

"...Died in Washington, D. C., aged 74 years. When a young boy, without the knowledge of his father, he repaired to the Patuxent River, where commodore Barney's flotilla was confronting tho enemy during the War of 1812, and, boarding the flag-ship, tendered his services to the commodore, in any position in which he could be useful. The commodore accepted his offer, and employed him as an aide, in which position he rendered valuable services. He subsequently was engaged in active service in the field, and in 1822 was appointed paymaster in the army. In 1847 he resigned to take command of the regiment of voltigeurs raised for the Mexican War. He was distinguished in the battle of El Molino, and brevetted a brigadier-general for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battle of Chapultepec. On the close of the war, and the disbandment of the voltigeurs, he was reinstated by act of Congress in his old situation of paymaster, and in 1851 was promoted to the position of Deputy Paymaster-General. During thelate war, upon the death of General Larned, Colonel Andrews succeeded him as Paymaster-General of the army, and his unwearied devotion to the responsible duties of his position seriously affected his health." - Appletons' Annual Cyclopædia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1868 p.563.

Johnston, Joseph E
Born In Va Appointed from Va l Bvt 2nd Lieut 4tb Art 1 July 1829 2nd Lieut 1 July 182 1st Lieut 31 July 1830 Resigned 31 May 1837 1st Lieut Top Eng 7 July 1838 Capt 21 Sept 1840 Lieut Col Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 to 19 July 1848 Lieut Col 1st Cav 3 March 1855 Brig Gen OMG 28 June 1800 Resigned 22 April 1801 Bvt Capt 7 Julv 1838 for gallantry on several occasions in war with the Florida Indians Pvt MaJ and Col 12 April 1847 for gallant and meritorious conduct at Cerro Gordo Bvt Lieut Col 13 Sept 1847 for gallant and meritorious conduct at Chapultepec
General CSA

"...On the 16th of February, 1847, Captain Johnston was made Lieutenant-Colonel of Voltigeurs by brevet, and in this capacity sailed with the expedition under General Scott. After the capture of Vera Cruz, when the U. 8. Army advanced, Col. Johnston made a most daring reconnoissance of the enemy's line, strongly posted on the heights of Cerro Gordo. In this reconnaissance he was severely wounded, having so nearly approached the enemy's works that he was struck by a musket-ball. His wounds—at first feared mortal —incapacitated him to take part in the battle of Cerro Gordo, which occurred six days afterward. He recovered, however, in time to resume his command in the subsequent battles of the Mexican war. He distinguished himself at Molino del Rey, and was again severely wounded at Chapultepec. These numerous casualties, while they add a luster to his reputation as a soldier, and attest his energy and courage, gave rise to the oft-quoted bon mot of Gen. Scott : "Johnston is a great soldier, but he has an unfortunate knack of getting himself shot in every engagement." He was several times brevetted for "gallant and meritorious conduct" during this war, and at its close was retained as Captain of Topographical Engineers. In 1835, when Congress authorized two additional regiments of " horse," he was commissioned Lieutenant- Colonel in one of the newly created regiments—the First Regiment of Cavalry—commanded by Col. E. V. Sumner." - The Phrenological Journal and Life Illustrated 1870 - Samuel R. Wells (specialty of analyses of mental characteristics of famous persons)
"...serving with the regiment of voltigeurs (an elite mobile cavalry like force consisting of dragoons, infantry, and artillery), Joseph E. Johnston began his combat duties with distinction. The voltigeurs wore a distinctive grey instead of the customary blue uniform, received training as expert skirmishers, and operated forward of the main force. Considered an honor regardless of the dangers, service with the voltigeurs became popular, and many soldiers volunteered to join. Johnston usually placed himself out in front during the attack, and his audacity in combat made him a magnet for bullets. The wounds he received at Cerro Gordo were the first of many to follow in the Mexican War campaign. A friend later recalled the topog's eagerness to gain information about the Mexican defenses:
Although Johnston now served with the voltigeurs, he continued to accomplish topographical duties on a voluntary basis. On this occasion he brought back important information revealing Mexican capability to sweep the road with artillery fire. Already holding the rank of lieutenant colonel of the Voltigeur Regiment, Johnston first gained a brevet promotion to major and then to colonel for gallant and meritorious conduct and for wounds received in his reconnaissance....Recovered from his wounds at Cerro Gordo, former topog Lt. Col. Joseph E. Johnston led his voltigeurs in the assault on Chapultepec. As one of Pillow's three attacking columns, the elite infantry unit advanced along the southern walls of Molino del Rey to help seize the base of Chapultepec before the Mexicans could set off their land mines. They then pushed on up the slope to the base of the massive retaining wall of the fortress, where they had to wait for the ladders. When the ladders arrived, the voltigeurs scaled the walls and were among the first Americans to raise their regimental colors over Chapultepec."
see also
- Joseph E. Johnston: A Civil War Biography by Craig L. Symonds
- Joseph E. Johnston: in Lamb's biographical dictionary of the United States, Volume 4 edited by John Howard Brown


Majors, Captains, Lieutenants - Alphabetical:

Archer, James Jay
Born In Md Appointed from Md l Capt Inf 23 Feb 1847 Voltigeurs 0 April 1847 Disbanded 31 Aug 1848 Capt 9th Inf 3 March 1855 Resigned 14 May 1861 Bvt Maj 13 Sept 1847 for gallant and meritorious conduct in the Battle of Chapultepec

Born December 19 1817, Bel Air MD - Died October 24 1864, Richmond VA (8th of 11 children born to John Archer and Ann Stump.)
Pre-War Profession Lawyer, Mexican War, commissioned to US Army 1855, resigned May 1861.

"There have been so many erroneous accounts of the part the different regiments took in the battle of Chapultepec and the voltigeurs not having taken any pains to write thmselves into notice as many others have done claiming for themselves what they never performed, and leaving out of all mention us that if I do not tell you know, I am afraid I will be persuaded that we were not in the battle at all." Archer, p. 415
- Maryland Historical Magazine, Volume 54 by Maryland Historical Society, 1959 - "A Marylander in the Mexican War: Some Letters of J.J. Archer, pp 408-422

"April, 1861. The news of the firing on Fort Sumter brought us an excitement which overshadowed all else, and though we had no officers at the post who sympathized with the rebellion, there were several in our regiment—the Fourth Infantry—who did, and we were considerably exercised as to the course they might pursue, but naturally far more so concerning the disposition that would be made of the regiment during the conflict. In due time orders came for the regiment to go East, and my company went off, leaving me, however—a second lieutenant—in command of the post until I should be relieved by Captain James J. Archer, of the Ninth Infantry, whose company was to take the place of the old garrison. Captain Archer, with his company of the Ninth, arrived shortly after, but I had been notified that he intended to go South, and his conduct was such after reaching the post that I would not turn over the command to him for fear he might commit some rebellious act. Thus a more prolonged detention occurred than I had at first anticipated. Finally the news came that he had tendered his resignation and been granted a leave of absence for sixty days."
- Personal Memoirs of P.H. Sheridan By Philip Henry Sheridan Volume II Chapter II.

Civil War - 1861 Col. of 5th Texas, Peninsula campaign, Seven Pines, June 1862 Brig. Gen., commanded Tennessee Bde/Hill's Light Division in Seven Days, Second Manassas, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, commanded Archer’s Bde/Heth's Divn at Gettysburg (c), exchanged 1864, briefly commanded 2 brigades, died as a result of continuing ill health.Notes First General officer to be captured after Lee took command of the ANV.
"A lawyer and an officer in the United States Army during the Mexican-American War and in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Archer (December 19, 1817 – October 24, 1864) was born in Bel Air, Maryland, to John and Ann Stump Archer, a wealthy military family. He graduated from Princeton in 1835 before attending Bacon College in Georgetown, Kentucky. Nicknamed "Sally" at Princeton for his frail and slight physique, he studied law at the University of Maryland and passed the bar exam. He established a successful law practice. When the Mexican-American War erupted, he volunteered as a captain and served in the U.S. Army (Voltiguers) in numerous battles, being cited for bravery at Chapultepec and brevetted to the rank of major. He moved to Texas in 1848, where he was wounded in a duel with Andrew Porter; his "second" in the duel was Thomas J. Jackson.[1] Returning to Maryland, Archer resumed his law practice, but decided in 1855 to join the regular army as a captain in the 9th U.S. Infantry, with whom he served primarily in the Pacific Northwest.Archer never married. 
(RG - There is much disinformation available concerning this man, including his sexual orientation.  For example, JJ Archer's  Mexican War  letters make it clear that the duel was not between he and Jackson but between Lieutenant Lee and Harley of the 11th Infantry - and that Jackson was Lee's second and he was a disinterested observer.  His letters home also contain several references to his attraction to pretty girls and young ladies.)

Civil War service:
When the American Civil War began in 1861, Archer was stationed in Fort Walla Walla in the Washington Territory. He resigned his commission on May 14, traveled to the South, and joined the Confederate Army as a captain in the Provisional Army. He soon was named colonel of the 5th Texas Infantry, serving in the brigade organized by former Texas Senator Louis T. Wigfall. After Brig. Gen. John Bell Hood assumed command, the Texas Brigade fought in the Peninsula Campaign in Virginia. Archer served with distinction at the Battle of Eltham's Landing and Seven Pines, but never found favor in the eyes of his Texans, who thought him a "tyrant." He was promoted to brigadier general on June 3, 1862, and initially given command of three regiments from Tennessee, after the brigade commander, Robert H. Hatton, had been killed at Seven Pines. Later in June, Archer's brigade joined five others to form the "Light Division" under Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill. Soon, two more regiments were added to Archer's brigade, which fought well in the Seven Days Battles, at Cedar Mountain, and at Second Bull Run, where his horse was killed under him. His men dubbed him "The Little Gamecock" for his slight build and fierce attitude in combat. During the Maryland Campaign of September 1862, Archer was suffering from an illness that forced him to direct his brigade from an ambulance, being too sick to ride his horse. His men made a forced march from Harpers Ferry and arrived in Sharpsburg on the left flank of the Union IX Corps. In a fierce assault, Archer drove back the enemy and recaptured a Confederate artillery battery. Three days later at the Battle of Shepherdstown, Archer and Brig. Gen. William Dorsey Pender led an attack that drove a Union pursuit force back across the Potomac River, enabling Lee's army to slip away into Virginia. Despite his continued ill health, Archer's leadership contributed to victories at the battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville.
During the 1863 Gettysburg Campaign, Archer's health continued to deteriorate as a result of long marches in the summer heat and humidity. His brigade was now part of the division of Maj. Gen. Henry Heth. Arriving at Gettysburg on July 1, Archer's troops were engaged with Federal cavalry under John Buford for over two hours, before being counterattacked by rapidly arriving Union infantry, including the famed Iron Brigade. Archer's men were likely those who killed Union commander Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds (the exact cause of Reynolds' death is controversial), but were quickly pushed back across Willoughby Run, where the exhausted Archer took cover in a thicket. A Union soldier, Private Patrick Maloney of the 2nd Wisconsin, seized Archer and escorted him behind enemy lines, where he briefly met an old colleague, Union Maj. Gen. Abner Doubleday. Archer became the first general officer to be taken captive from the Army of Northern Virginia since General Lee assumed command. Birkett D. Fry (RG-fellow ex-Voltigeur) assumed command of Archer's Brigade and led it during Pickett's Charge, while Archer and his younger brother and aide-de-camp Robert Harris Archer (1820–1878) were sent to Fort Delaware for prisoner processing.
Archer, along with many other officers captured at Gettysburg, was eventually sent to the Johnson's Island prisoner of war camp on the coast of Lake Erie, where his health rapidly declined due to exposure to the inclement Ohio weather. He wrote a letter to the Confederate War Department in which he advocated a plot to overthrow the guards, but the conspirators would require assistance from the government to get the men back home. After a stay of nearly a year, he was sent, along with 600 officers from various prisons, to Fort Delaware, in accordance with a scheme to reship them to Morris Island in South Carolina, a place under constant fire from Confederate cannon. Archer and the others would be hostages to prevent further shelling. This plan never materialized. Archer was finally exchanged late in the summer of 1864, and rejoined the army. On August 9, he was ordered to report to the Army of Tennessee under Hood in Atlanta, but this order was revoked ten days later, possibly due to his bad health.[2] He traveled to Petersburg, Virginia to the command of his old brigade, and briefly serving in the Siege of Petersburg before his health finally collapsed after the Battle of Peebles' Farm. He died in Richmond, Virginia, and was buried in Hollywood Cemetery."
- edited from wikipedia article

"Archer, who was forty-five years old at Gettysburg, was born in the northern Maryland town of Bel Air. He attended Princeton University, where he was nicknamed "Sally." (There is much conjecture about Archer's sexual orientation. Some point to his feminine nickname as an indication that he was homosexual, but Mary Chesnut, the Confederate diarist, mentioned that Archer was a classmate of her husband's, and according to Mr. Chesnut, "in Princeton College they called him Sally Archer, he was so pretty when he entered"--evidently Archer's smooth, delicate features alone accounted for the moniker. Others cite the fact that, after his capture, he played the women's parts in the skits put on by the prisoners at Johnson's Island prison camp, but Archer was slight of build, even frail, and those parts might have fallen to him solely for that reason. There is also the testimony of one North Carolinian that at Johnson's Island, after a dinner party: "Capt. Taylor got some whiskey . . . & he had Gen. Archer down & they all got drink together & got to hugging each other & saying that they had slept together many a time." This, however, could be a description of drunken reminiscing by old army buddies, who after all were sometimes forced to huddle together for warmth at night during cold-weather campaigns. It is true that Archer had never married, and was not comfortable in the presence of single women. A friend described the general as "timid and retiring" socially. The only women in his life were his sister and mother.) After graduating in 1835, Archer studied law at the University of Maryland and was admitted to the bar. He practiced law until the Mexican War began in 1846, when he joined the army as captain of infantry in the Regular Army. There, he received a brevet for gallantry at the Battle of Chapultapec. His only wound, however, was suffered in a duel with a fellow officer. (Archer's second in the duel was his friend Thomas J. Jackson.) After the war with Mexico was over, he went back to his law practice, then reentered the regular army in 1855, again as an infantry captain...."his temper was irascible, and so cold was his manner that we thought him at first a Martinet. Very non-communicative, the bearing and extreme reserve of the old army officer made him, for a time, one of the most hated of men. No sooner, however, had he led his brigade through the first Richmond campaign. than quite a evolution took place in sentiment . . . . He had none of the politician or aristocrat, but never lost the dignity or bearing of an officer. While in battle he seemed the very God of war, and every inch a soldier according to its strictest rules, but when the humblest private approached his quarters he was courteous. There was no deception in him and he spoke his mind freely, but always with the severest dignity. He won the hearts of his men by his wonderful judgment and conduct on the field, and they had the most implicit confidence in him. He was dubbed "The Little Game Cock."

brother of
Robert H Archer - also in the Voltigeurs
Born (20 May 1820; 9th of 11 children) In Md Appointed from Md 2nd Lieut Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 Disbanded 31 Aug 1848 Died 11 Aug 1875 (edited from Powell, p. 165 and MHS citation; two Robert Archer's from Maryland share the same citation but there is an in-congruency - the RH Archer In Md Appointed from Md  Bvt 2nd Lieut 3rd Inf 1 July 1832 Trans to 4th Art 13 Nov 1833 2nd Lieut 31 Dee 1835 Resigned 31 Dee 1837 is a different fellow our Voltigeur Robert H Archer was born in 1820..and would not have been commissioned at age 12!
-additional officer citation
Civil War: Lieutenant Colonel in the 55th Virginia Infantry.  Wounded and captured at Gettysburg, he was imprisoned for a time at Johnson's Island with his older brother, James J. Archer
"Archer" sources:

- Maryland Historical Magazine, Volume 54 by Maryland Historical Society, 1959 - "A Marylander in the Mexican War: Some Letters of J.J. Archer, pp 408-422
"There have been so many erroneous accounts of the part the different regiments took in the battle of Chapultepec and the voltigeurs not having taken any pains to write thmselves into notice as many others have done claiming for themselves what they never performed, and leaving out of all mantion us that if I do not tell you know, I am afraid i will be persuaded that we were not in the battle at all." Archer, p. 415

- The James J. Archer Letters: Part I: Maryland Historical Magazine, Volume 56 by Maryland Historical Society, June 1961 - The James J. Archer letters : a Marylander in the Civil War. Ed. by C. A. Porter Hopkins. pp. 72-149.
- The James J. Archer Letters: Maryland Historical Magazine, Volume 7 by Maryland Historical Society, 2009
-  Archer Collection, 1843-1864 Maryland Historical Society
Letters from James J. Archer (1817-1864) of Rock Run, Harford County, to his family. Subjects include his experiences in the Mexican War, Indian  campaigns in Washington Territory, with descriptions of frontier life and  politics. Many references to well-known army officers, specific campaigns  and raids, the Northwest Boundary Survey, etc. Later group of letters is of  the Civil War period, when Archer served as a Confederate Brigadier General, and was wounded and captured at the Battle of Gettysburg. Letters
while a prisoner of war on Johnson's Island, Ohio, 1863-1864, the final items written within a week of Archer's death due to hardships suffered as a prisoner. 1 box, 1843-1864.
- Brigadier General James Archer [CSA]; A Brief Biography of “The Little Game Cock”
by Len Overcash, Sr
- Collett Leventhorpe, the English Confederate: the life of a Civil War, by J. Timothy Cole, Bradley R. Foley, 2006 - includes accounts of the capture and characterization of the two "Archers"

Barnard, Moses J.
Born in Mass; Appointed from Penn l Capt Inf 16 Feb 1847 Capt Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 Disbanded 31 Aug 1848 Bvt Maj 13 Sept 1847 for gallant and meritorious conduct at the Battle of Chapultepec

Richmond Whig, May 19, 1848: Proceedings of the Court of Inquiry in the Case of
Gen. Pillow. Testimony of Capt M J Bernard.
"I think I was the third or fourth man in the work, and was employed with my regiment...."
- RW48v25i40p4c3, May 19, 1848: Testimony of Capt M J Bernard.

"CHAP. LXJX.—An Act to continue a Pension to Christine Barnard, Widow of the late Brevet Major Moses J. Barnard, United States Army.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of the Interior be, and he is hereby, directed to continue upon the pension roll, at the rate of thirty dollars per month, from and after the fourth day of July, eighteen hundred and fifty-seven, when her pension expired, the name of Christine Barnard, widow of the late Brevet Major Moses J. Barnard, captain in company H, regiment of voltigeurs, who was twice wounded in planting the American colors upon the parapet of Chepultepec while storming that fortress, and who died from disease contracted in, and greatly enhanced by hardships and fatigue of, the Mexican campaign; said pension to be held by her, or by her children, in accordance with existing laws in reference to the widows and children of those who died from wounds or disease received or contracted during the Mexican war.

"Capt. Moses Barnard planted Johnston's Voltigeur colors above the east wall."
The life and wars of Gideon J. Pillow by Nathaniel Cheairs Hughes, Roy P. Stonesifer

Biddle, Charles John
Born in Penn; Appointed from Penn Capt Inf 16 Feb 1847 Voltigeurs 0 April 1H47 Disbanded 2 Aug 1848 Bvt MaJ 13 Sept 1847 for gallant and meritorious conduct at Chapultepec Col l3th Pa Res 21 June 1861 Resigned 11 Dee 1861 Died 28 Sept 1873
- List of officers of the army of the United States from 1779 to 1900 William Henry Powell, 1900  
- "Soldier and journalist, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1819, sou of Nicholas Biddle, the noted financier. After graduating at Princeton University in 1837, he studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1840. During the Mexican war he served as a captain of the Voltigeurs, U. S. army, and was in action at Contreras, Churubusco, Molino del Rey, Chapultepec and the capture of Mexico city, receiving the brevet of major for gallant and meritorious services. After the war he returned to the practice of his profession in Philadelphia, being thus engaged until 1861, when he was appointed a colonel in the Pennsylvania volunteers. During October of that year, while on military duty in Virginia, he was elected a representative from Pennsylvania to the 37th congress, to fill the seat made vacant by the resignation of Edward J. Morris, and though tendered a commission of brigadier-general in the army, declined it in preference for the civil office. Shortly after the close of the war he became one of the proprietors us well as editor-in-chief of the Philadelphia "Age, "a leading Democratic paper which he conducted with great ability throughout the remainder of his was mainly on this journal, yet he published a separate work entitled "The Case of Major André," which was first read in the form of an essay before the Pennsylvania Historical Society, in answer to that portion of Lord Mahon'a " History of England " decrying Andre's execution as a dark blot on the record of George Washington. Even the English press finally acknowledged his arguments, the London "Critic" pronouncing his essay a fair refutation of Lord Mahon's obnoxious charge. Mr. Biddle died in the city of his birth, Sept. 28, 1873." - GB-The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography --- see also
- "Whilst this movement was being made against the Garita General Cadwalader ordered the Voltigeur regiment and a mountain howitzer to move out towards the enemy north of the English cemetery and a few discharges from the howitzer supported by the Voltigeur company under Capt Charles J Biddle who had left a sick bed to take part drove him back Lieut II Stevens of the engineers whilst reconnoitering the enemy's position in front of the Voltigeurs was severely wounded." and bottom page citation "On the morning of the 13th Captain Biddle lay on a rude pallet in camp apparently in the last stages of deadly illness Unable to move he saw with despair his comrades leave one by one for the scene of action and was left alone with his pain and misery Suddenly aroused by an ominous sound the cannon's opening roar he tried to rise but could not called no answer Oh God he moaned must I stay chained here by fever and disease while my brave Voltigeurs charge the enemy With that superhuman strength often begotten by desperation he crawled to the door near which stood a gaunt crippled horse and after many pitiful efforts climbed upon his back and undressed hatless bootless weaponless save an old ramrod found at the door managed to reach his regiment n skeleton capt in on a skeleton steed The apparition startling and unexpected was greeted with shouts heard above the thunder of the field and gathering around him his men were foremost in the charge and he one of the first to reach the vantage point." p. 475
- History of the Mexican War by Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox, 1892

Blair, James D.
Born in Ky Appointed from Miss Capt of Inf 23 Feb 1847 Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 Disbanded 31 Aug 1848
"RW47v24i34p4c6, April 27, 1847, The Company of Voltigeurs
Company leaving for war; under command of James D. Blair and William S. Walker and Washington Terret"
- Richmond Whig April 27, 1847
Civil War:
2nd Louisiana Cavalry Regiment (33rd Regiment Partisan Rangers)
Company B, Marion Rangers (Natchitoches) James D Blair promoted major January 14, 1863; promoted lieutenant colonel January 13, 1864" resigned April 10, 1865, p.41
Guide to Louisiana Confederate Military Units 1861-1865 by Arthur W. Bergeron, pp. 41,63,65,77
captured during Red River Campaign, exchanged June 2 1864..planted in Natchitoches, died in Caney, texas, 1 Jan 1874, age 46 
Portraits of conflict: a photographic history of Louisiana in the Civil War by Carl H. Moneyhon, Bobby Leon Roberts, p.274
defeated in 1870 for State Treasurer by Republican opponent.

Caldwell, George A.
Born in Ky Appointed from K MaJ Q M Vols 28 June 1840 MaJ Inf 3 March 1847 Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 Disbanded 25 Aug 1848 Bvt Lieut Col 13 Sept 1847 for gallant and meritorious conduct at Chapultepec
- List of officers of the army of the United States from 1779 to 1900 William Henry Powell, 1900
"US Congressman, United States Army Officer (Oct. 18, 1814 - Sep. 17, 1866). Served in the United States Army during the Mexican War, being commissioned Major and Quartermaster of Volunteers on June 26, 1846. On March 3, 1847 he was promoted to Major of Infantry March 3, 1847, and then joined the Voltigeurs one month later. He rendered particularly brave service at the Battle of Chapultepec, Mexico, and was brevetted Lieutenant Colonel. He was mustered out of the Army on August 25, 1848. Elected to represent Kentucky's 4th District in the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1843 to 1845, and 1849 to 1851. Also served as a member of the Kentucky State Legislature. - Burial: Cave Hill Cemetery, Louisville Jefferson County Kentucky, USA

"...In 1846, when war became rife between the United States and Mexico, the subject of our sketch, who had advocated the annexation of Texas, which was the subject of the war, applied to the State Government of Kentucky and to the Government of the United States for an appointment in the United States Army in its contest with Mexico, already under the command of General Taylor on the Rio Grande and advancing into Mexican territory. Mr. Polk sent him a commission as quartermaster with the rank ol major, which was not what he wanted; yet he accepted it, and went into Taylor's line, where he saw some service more than quartermasters often have the privilege of taking part in.
During the winter of 1846-47 General Taylor sent him back to the United States to purchase horses for the service, which duty he performed in the cities of Louisville and St. Louis. Before he returned to Taylor's army he received a commission from the United States Government as major of the line in the Voltigeur regiment, one of the ten new regiments added by special act of Congress to the regular army to serve during with the warwith Mexico. Of this regiment, the first and only Voltigeur regiment ever connected with the United States army, Colonel Andrews, a venerable officer of the United States army, was made colonel, Joseph E. Johnston, since so conspicuously known by his prominent connection with the Confederate army and his position of Congressman from Virginia, was made lieutenant-colonel, aud George Alfred Caldwell the major. In service with that regiment Major Caldwell was in active duty in all of the movements of the American army under the command of General Scott, after the battle of Cerro Gordo to the capture of the city of Mexico and until the close of the war. He saw much active service and received many compliments from his superior officers, and particularly for his brilliant and distinguished service at Chapultepec, for which he was breveted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, whence the title by which he was afterwards known. The regimental colors under his immediate command were the first American colors planted upon the walls of the Mexican stronghold of Chapultepec. So fierce was the conflict in which that part of the regiment under him was engaged that two or three of his color-bearers were shot down with the colors in their hands, and it fell to the third or fourth to actually plant the colors upon the walls of the captured citadel. These colors are now in the keeping of his brother, Mr. Isaac Caldwell, of Louisville, at his residence, where they are draped over an oil portrait of the subject of
this sketch—one of Healey's master-pieces. They came into the possession of Colonel Caldwell accompanied with the following note from his old superior and beloved officer, Joseph E. Johnston, dated at Louisville, where Colonel Johnston was then stationed in the engineer service of the United States army:
Louisville, April 1, 1854.
Dear Colonel:—I send by the bearer our old colors. You may remember that at our dispersion I took possession of them. It has since occurred to me that as most if not all our honorable marks were received while they were under your command, your claim is far better than mine to the ownership, and besides I want to keep before you a memento of our former association. As ever,
Colonel Caldwell. J. E. Johnston. 

This old and battered and bullet-riddled flag and the foregoing note from General Johnston were always greatly cherished by Colonel Caldwell. His attachment for his old superior was an exceedingly warm one. He believed him to be the foremost man in the United States army, and never faltered or doubted in that belief.
After his return from Mexico in the fall of 1848, he had time before the Presidential election to make a partial canvass of his old district in favor of the Democratic candidate in the Presidential contest of that year then pending. He did not support General Taylor, his old commander in the first year of his service in the Mexican war, but was true to his allegiance to the Democratic party and supported Cass. In 1849 he again became a candidate for Congress, and beat the regular Whig nominee of the district by a very large majority...."
History of the Ohio Falls Cities and Their Counties: General history, by L. A. Williams & Co., Cleveland, 1882, p. 495

Calwell, James H.
Born in Md Appointed from Va Capt Inf 23 Feb 1847 Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 Died 18 Sept 1847 of wounds received at Paso Ovlgas, Mexico

"REv44i19p4c3 July 5, 1847 Military Movements
The Norfolk Beacon of Tuesday says: We understand that the barque Margaret Hugg will sail from Hampton Roads,today, for the Gulf of Mexico, with Capt. Caldwell’s company of Voltigeurs, and 103 Voltigeur recruits, under command of Lt. Marriot, on board. The following is a list of officers of Captain Calwell’s company: Jas. H. Calwell,captain, John W. Leigh, 1st Lieutenant; G.W. Carr, 2d tlo; Isaac Smith, 3d do. Officers of the recruits from Baltimore — J.C. Marriot, 1st Lieutenant, J.C. Wynder. 2d do."
- Richmond Enquirer, July 5, 1847  
" Early in the attack in front Capt JN Caldwell of the Voltigeurs and Capt Arthur C Cummings Eleventh Infantry fell at the head of their companies severely wounded nine men were wounded one mortally The fight continued one and a half hours loss sustained by the enemy not known..."p. 411
- History of the Mexican War by Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox

Carr, George W.
(Vir) Sec Lt Voltigeurs 23 Feb. 47 : disband. Aug. 48.
Civil War CSA Colonel - 57th Virginia Infantry, C.S.A. George W. Carr also served as commander of the 57th for a short period of time in 1863
"Among the prisoners was a tall and fine looking officer, much worn with hunger and fatigue. The moment I saw him I recognized him as a former comrade, George W. Carr, with whom I had served in Washington Territory. He was in those days a lieutenant in the Ninth Infantry, and was one of the officers who superintended the execution of the nine Indians at the Cascades of the Columbia in 1856. Carr was very much emaciated, and greatly discouraged by the turn events had recently taken. For old acquaintance sake I gave him plenty to eat, and kept him in comfort at my headquarters until the next batch of prisoners was sent to the rear, when he went with them. He had resigned from the regular army at the commencement of hostilities, and, full of high anticipation, cast his lot with the Confederacy, but when he fell into our hands, his bright dreams having been dispelled by the harsh realities of war, he appeared to think that for him there was no future." - "CAPTURING AN OLD COMRADE" - Personal Memoirs of P.H. Sheridan By Philip Henry Sheridan Volume II Chapter II. -
son? - Obituary for George W. Carr - "Three months ago there was laid to rest in Oakwood Cemetery at Corsicana, Texas, a son of the Old South, George W. Carr. For more than thirty years he was a familiar figure upon our streets, and those who knew him intimately and best loved him. He had many excellent qualities of mind and heart. His love for the aesthetic and the beautiful in literature, in nature, and in art was keenly developed. His soul was so attuned that it was thrilled by harmonies and beauties which the untrained ear could not hear and the untrained eye could not see. He loved his country with a deathless devotion. As a beardless boy he fought under the Stars and Bars with General Lee and General J. E. B. Stuart (both of whom he idolized) as a member of Stuart's Horse Artillery. Many of this command were boys, yet they were heroes of a hundred combats and had held their ground in the most desperate encounters against vastly superior numbers at Cold Harbor, Manassas, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and many other conflicts. Never were there braver fighters than Stuart's Horse Artillery, and George W. Carr was one of them. When the United States went into the war against Germany, the martial spirit of this old veteran was again aroused, and he longed to fight under the Stars and Straps of his reunited country. Comrade Carr was courteous, chivalrous, and the soul of honor. His was a sympathizing heart; he could hear no story of suffering without sympathizing. He was sixty-eight years of age. He came to Texas in 1882 from Virginia, his native State." [E. L. Bell, Commander Camp Winkler, No. 147, U. C. V.]- 1918 - Confederate Veteran, Official Journal of the Sons of Confederate Veterans

Churchill, Alexander P.
Born In Ky Appointed from Ky Capt Voltigeurs 0 April 1847 Disbanded 31 Aug 1848
"Alexander P Churchill to be Lieutenant Colonel of the 122d Regiment in place of James Densford"
Journal of the Senate of the Commonwealth of Kentucky by Kentucky General Assembly. Senate
Executive Department December 6th 1838
"The Churchill family has been influential in Louisville since they settled at the Falls of the Ohio in 1784. This family gave its name to Churchill Downs, the world famous race track. 
John's companion was Alexander P. Churchill, a former state legislator from Jefferson County."
The Rowan story: from Federal Hill to My Old Kentucky Home, 1976
Famous Kentucky duels by John Winston Coleman, John Lyde Wilson,1969
"friend and second Colonel Alexander P. Churchill with a challenge note to Dr. Yandell. This note was delivered late Saturday afternoon, June 9th, 1849

Cochran, Theodore D
Born in Del Appointed from Penn 2nd Lieut Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 Disbanded 31 Aug 1848 Capt 15th Inf 14 May 1861 Resigned 3 Jan 1862
"was the fourth son of Richard E Cochran MD and was born at Somerton Delaware on the 18th day of January 1821. Brought by his father to Columbia, he passed his boyhood and youth there going to school and obtaining a knowledge of the art of printing. In 1840, he became and continued to be for some time the editor of the Old Guard then published at Lancaster and then and afterwards wrote largely for the newspaper press, especially the Columbia Spy and York Republican. In 1847, the country being then engaged in war with Mexico he entered the military service and received a commission as Lieutenant in the regular line being attached to the regiment known as Voltiguers. He marched from Vera Cruz in the force commanded by General Cadwallader, taking part in all its contests and in the subsequent battles around Mexico conspicuously those of Molino del Rey and Chapultepec. He remained there in the service until the forces of the United States were withdrawn from Mexico at the declaration of peace and the regiment was disbanded. Previously to that time his fellow citizens of Lancaster county elected him one of their representatives in the State Legislature, in which he served them during the sessions of 1844 and 1845. He was residing at York when the Southern rebellion broke out in 1861 and although still suffering from the effects of hurts and disease incurred in the Mexican war, he commenced at an early day to raise a company which he commanded in a three months tour of duty and after its close took a commission in a regiment of regular forces but was compelled by ill health to retire from the service. After a lingering and painful illness he died at the residence of his oldest brother Thomas E Cochran at York on the 26th day of July 1863 and his body is interred in Prospect Hill Cemetery adjoining that borough."
A biographical history of Lancaster County, 1872
 "On the morning of the 13th of September 1847 the regiment of Voltigeurs to which I was attached as subaltern officer was ordered to clear the woods and the western side of the wall extending from Molino del Rev to the castle of Chapultepec.."
Theo D Cochrane Late Second Lieut Regt of Voltigeurs Columbia Pa May 20 1849
Testimony of Lieut Cochrane Second (?) Regiment of Voltigeurs
Illustrated Naval and Military Magazine: A monthly journal...,Volume 3, 1889
Cochran's Testimony also cited in "Captain Lamb's biographical dictionary of the United States, Volume 4 edited by John Howard Brown
"Mayne Reid: his life and adventures" by Elizabeth Hyde Reid

Cochran's Testimony also cited in "Captain Mayne Reid: his life and adventures" by Elizabeth Hyde Reid
Thomas Mayne Reid (April 4, 1818 – October 22, 1883), an Irish-born novelist who lived and wrote in the United States and England,; author of some seventy-five novels of adventure-romance and many short stories and sketches...He was a favorite of a young Theodore Roosevelt, who became a huge Reid fan. His first adventure novel was The Rifle Rangers, based on his Mexican War experiences, and written during 1848-49; published until 1850 (originally entitled War Life; or, The Adventures of a Light Infantry Officer (New York: Townsend, 1849); republished as The Rifle Rangers). He was commissioned a second lieutenant with the New York Volunteer Infantry  and was wounded severely (thigh or hip) at the battle of Chapultepec. He also was a correspondent (pseudonym "Ecolier") for the Spirit of the Times of NY, which published his "Sketches by a Skirmisher,"  Cochran's testimony was among several that Reid, "collected in New York in the spring of 1849 when I (Mayne) heard of other individuals claiming to have been first into Chapultepec. I do not claim to have been first over the walls as I did not get over the wall at all but was shot down in front of it but I claim to have led up the men who received the last volley of the enemy's fire and thus left the scaling of the wall a mere matter of climbing as scarcely anyone was shot afterwards. Mayne Reid PS - General Pillow was at the time using every exertion to disprove my claims it being a life and death matter with him having an eye to the Presidency to prove that the men in his division were the first to enter Chapultepec."  wiki & Reid, p. 86
"Accounts that cite Reid as having been the first to scale the castle's walls and plant the United States flag are no doubt in error, he nevertheless did perform with great courage at Chapultepec. In May 1848 he was discharged from the army. By his own account he had been promoted to captain and so referred to himself for the rest of his life, but he is listed only as a first lieutenant in Francis B. Heitman's definitive Historical Register and Dictionary of the U.S. Army...Although Reid was never considered a major novelist, in England he made a significant contribution to the popular image of the American West as a place of romance and high adventure." -

available for purchase:
SKETCHES BY A SKIRMISHER: The Mexican War Writings of Capt. Mayne Reid
Co. B, Second Regiment of New York Volunteers
(accounts of the battles at Vera Cruz, Contreras, Churubusco, Molino del Rey, Chapultepec, and Mexico City and encounters with guerrillas and senoritas)

"the company was “mustered” into the service of the United States government, and armed and equipped as an independent corps of “Rifle Rangers”. On the 20th of January, 1847, a noble ship was bearing us over the blue water, toward the shores of a hostile land." - from The Rifle Rangers 

Cross, Alexander H.
Born In DC Appointed from DC 1st Lieut Inf 24 Feb 1847 Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 Disbanded 31 Aug 1848 1st Lieut 2nd Cav 3 March 1855 Appointment expired 1 May 1856 Died In 1869

Edwards, Oscar E.
Born in Va Appointed from Va Capt Inf 23 Feb 1847 Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 Disbanded 31 July 1848 Bvt Maj 13 Sept 1847 for gallant and meritorious conduct at Chapultepec
"Captain Edwards's company was also offered to the Governor for his disposal, but not being received, the offer was made to the Governor of North Carolina; being again refused, proposals were then made to the United States Government, and promptly accepted. Captain E. having received a commission as captain, in a regiment of voltigeurs, embarked, on March 27th, for Fort M'Henry, near Baltimore; after which, the company proceeded to Mexico, where Captain E. was assigned to the command of the howitzer battery attached to the regiment. During the engagement at the National Bridge, and elsewhere, Captain E. and his company fought with great gallantry. After his return to the city, he was presented, by some of the citizens, with an elegant sword, as an evidence of their appreciation of his brave conduct and distinguished efforts in the service of his country. He has since died in California, leaving a wife and several children, who reside in this city.
- Historical and Descriptive Sketches of Norfolk and Vicinity: Including..By William S. Forrest, 1853
"REVXLIVi105p4c5, May 2, 1848, (Reply of Captain Edwards.) NORFOLK, April 7, 1848.
Gentlemen: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your kind invitation to a public dinner to be given me by the citizens of my native county, which I accept with no ordinary pleasure. You have been pleased to approve my conduct in the valley of Mexico, and, next to the consciousness of duty well discharged, nothing can be more gratifying to me than the generous approbation of my fellow citizens, especially of my native county.
Permit me to express my obligations to yourselves for the very kind manner in which you have thought proper to address me, and to return to my fellow citizens of Surry my heartfelt thanks.
With sentiments of respect and esteem, I am, gentlemen, your obedient servant,
O. E. EDWARDS, Capt.
U. S. Voltigeurs."
- Richmond Enquirer, May 2, 1848

Forsyth, Robert C.
Born In Ga Appointed from Ga Cadet at Mil Acad 1 July 1842 to 20 Jan 1843 2nd Lieut Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 1st Liout 18 Sept 1847 Disbanded 30 Aug 1848 Bvt 1st Lieut 13 Sept 1847 for gallant and meritorious conduct at Chapultepec Мех
- List of officers of the army of the United States from 1779 to 1900 William Henry Powell, 1900  
1st Alabama Artillery Battalion Lieut Col Robert C Forsyth (resigned)- The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union ...‎ - Page 861
Columbus postoffice under Col Robert C Forsyth

Frost, James A.
Born In Md Appointed from Md 2nd Lieut of Inf 23 Feb 1847 Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 1st Lieut 31 Dec 1847 Disbanded 25 Aug 1848

Fry, Birkett Davenport
Born In Va Appointed from Va 1st Lieut of Inf 24 Feb 1847 Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 Reg Adj 15 June to 20 Aug 1847 Disbanded 31 Aug 1848 
- List of officers of the army of the United States from 1779 to 1900 William Henry Powell, 1900

 born June 24, 1822 in Kanawha County, [now] West Virginia; son of Thornton Fry and Eliza Thompson. Entered VMI on July 20, 1840 as a member of the Class of 1843; resigned on June 2, 1841. 
Pre-Civil War
Entered West Point in 1842, but left before graduating because of an academic deficiency (math); practiced law;
lst Lieut., Voltigeur Regiment  during Mexican War (with Captain James J. Archer and 1st Lt Leonidas McIntosh)
Following the war, as with so many other adventurers, Fry moved to California  as a "Forty-Niner" practiced law in 1849-1855; In October 1856, he accompanied the filibusterer, William Walker, during his expedition to Nicaragua  as a colonel (and later general) in Walker's mercenary army. Fry returned to California, living there until 1859 when he moved to Alabama and engaged in cotton manufacturing.
Confederate brigadier general in the American Civil War. A survivor of four battle wounds, he commanded one of the lead brigades during Pickett's Charge at the Battle of Gettysburg.
died January 21, 1891 in Richmond VA.. - Tycoon's War: How Cornelius Vanderbilt Invaded a Country to Overthrow by Stephen Dando-Collins
see also Nicaragua: War of the Filibusters By Daniel Bedinger Lucas
Civil War Service:
July 1861 Col. of 13th Alabama, Seven Pines (w), Sharpsburg (w), Chancellorsville (w), Gettysburg, Pickett's Charge (w,c), exchanged after nine months, May 1864 Brig. Gen., commanded Walker’s and Archer’s Bdes/Heth’s Divn at Cold Harbor, commanded Walker’s Bde/Heth’s Divn at Petersburg, commanded a district in South Carolina and Georgia.
Post War Career Emigrated to Cuba, returned 1868, businessman.
"Brigadier General Birkett Davenport Fry was born in Kanawha county Va June 24 1822 His father was Thornton Fry grandson of Col Joshua Fry who figured in colonial history He was educated at Washington college Pa at the Virginia military institute and at West Point He did not remain at West Point to graduate but studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1846 When ten new regiments were raised for the Mexican war he was commissioned a first lieutenant of United States voltigeurs and foot riflemen of which Joseph E Johnston was lieutenant colonel He served as adjutant at Contreras and Churubusco and led a company at Mo lino del Rey and Chapultepec where he was mentioned as distinguished After the war had ended and the regiment had been disbanded at Fort McHenry Md he with a party of other young men went across the plains to California where he remained until 1856 Going then to Nicaragua he joined Walker's expedition as colonel and general He commanded at Granada and defeated the army of Guatemala After the failure of that expedition he returned to San Francisco continuing there until the autumn of 1859 when he went to Alabama and settling at Tallassee engaged in cotton manufacturing until the opening of the civil war On July 19 1861 he was commissioned colonel of the Thirteenth Alabama infantry Reporting at once with his regiment at Richmond he was ordered to Yorktown where he remained until its evacuation At the battle of Seven Pines he was wounded in the hand After an absence of six weeks he returned to his regiment and remained with it until his left arm was shattered near the shoulder at Sharpsburg The surgeons decided that it would be necessary to amputate the arm What are the chances of my living without the operation One in three hundred was the answer Then I will take it he replied He rejoined his command in time for Chancellorsville where he led his brigade Archer's on the second day Here he was again wounded but did not leave his regiment until Gettysburg commanding it or the brigade until that battle The Thirteenth Alabama with Archer's brigade Heth's division was among the first to be engaged in the hard fighting for position at Gettysburg July 1st and after the capture of General Archer that day he took command of the brigade and led it in the second furious assault Colonel Fry judiciously changed his front said General Heth thus protecting the right flank of the division during the engagement This brigade Archer's the heroes of Chancellorsville fully maintained its hard won and well deserved reputation On July 3d his brigade was on the right of the division under Pettigrew and was the brigade of direction for the whole force being immediately on the left of Pickett's division He led it gallantly up Cemetery ridge under a fire which melted away his line until he reached the stone wall where he fell shot through the shoulder and the thigh and again became a prisoner of war He lay in field hospital six days then was taken to the hospital at Fort McHenry and in October was sent to the Federal prison on Johnson's island in Lake Erie By a special exchange he returned to the army in Virginia in March 1864 He was ordered to take command of Barton's brigade at Drewry's bluff and led it in the battle in which Beauregard drove back Butler's army Being sent now to Lee Gen AP Hill placed him in command of Archer's and Walker's brigades and this force with some other troops he led in the second battle of Cold Harbor holding the left of the Confederate line On May 24 1864 he had been promoted brigadier general and a few days after the battle of Cold Harbor he was ordered to Augusta Ga to command a district embracing parts of South Carolina and Georgia This he held until the close of the war He then went to Cuba but in 1868 returned to Alabama and resumed his old business of cotton manufacturing at Tallassee in which he continued until 1876 when he removed to Florida After spending some time there he went back to Alabama and resided in Montgomery where his wife died This estimable lady was Martha A Micau born in Augusta Ga but living in San Francisco when married In 1881 General Fry went to Richmond Va and engaged in cotton buying He was president of the Marshall manufacturing company of that city from 1886 until his death February 5 1891."
- Confederate Military History - edited by Clement Anselm Evans,1899

Howard, John Eager
Born In Md Appointed from Md Capt of Inf 23 Feb 1847 Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 Disbanded 25 Aug 1848 Bvt Maj 13 Sept 1S47 for gallant and meritorious conduct at Chapultepec

Captain John Eager Howard Papers, 1847-1859,
Correspondence of Captain John Eager Howard with his mother, Mrs. Cornelia Howard, mainly describing his activities in the Mexican War. Reports, muster rolls, orders, etc., of the company of "U. S. Voltigeurs" commanded by Howard in the army of General Winfield Scott, 1847-1848. Grandson of Lieutenant Colonel John Eager Howard of Continental Line and Cowpens fame... Howard led the American Continental soldiers in Morgan's third line of defense..the elder Howard served as Governor of Maryland 1788-1791, and US Senator. In the War of 1812, he helped organize the defenses of Baltimore City. President pro tempore of the Senate during the Sixth Congress; offered the position of Secretary of War by President George Washington, but declined; also declined a commission as brigadier general in the expected war with France in 1798; unsuccessful Federalist candidate for vice president in 1816; died at ‘Belvedere,’ near Baltimore, Md., October 12, 1827-
Niles Register 13 Nov 1847 description of the penetration of the fortress of Chapultepec:
"Capt. John E. Howard, of the Voltigeurs. –  It will be exceedingly gratifying to the many relatives and friends of the young and gallant officer to learn, that he has passed through the fiery ordeal of the recent terrible conflicts, and around in the city of Mexico with safety - and not only so, but with distinguished credit to himself and to his native sate, Maryland. Nothing has been heard directly from Capt. Howard himself, but a brother officer in the same regiment has written to his relatives in this state, from which the following short extracts have been kindly permitted to be taken. They are from a description of the storming of the Hill and Castle of Chapultepec, one of the most gallant and probably the most perilous and sanguinary contests in the whole war. “We rose to the crest of the hill and, amid the most weathering fire of grape and canister and the musketry of near two thousand Mexicans, planted the ladders and, with a cheer, mounted. The first man who entered alive was Captain Howard – he was followed instanter,” &c., &c. “The first then or fifteen inside the works met some resistance, as they fell back into the building that in the center of the works, but we charged then and there, Captain Howard of Baltimore, with his own hand killed three, and by the time, the poor devils were calling for quarters,” &. Well may Maryland be proud of her sons. The name and fame of one of the most distinguished soldiers of the Revolution, Col. John E. Howard, have descended upon a grandson, if whom he might well be proud and who is able to uphold both. The laurels gathered by the ancestor at Cowpens, and at Entaw, will but bloom with fresh and renewed… by the side of those plucked by his chivalrous descendants at Chapultepec and Mexico. The gallantry of Lieut. Tilton also of the Voltigeurs, was no less conspicuous. When about seizing the colors of his regiment, as they were falling from the hands of the mortally wounded standard bearer a partially spent ball struck him in the face, prostrating him instantly, so that all thought he was killed. In a moment, or two, however he recovered, and springing forward, after Howard, was the fifth man who entered the almost impregnable fortress alive. General Pillow, who was in the van, but had just been wounded severely, at the distance of a few yards, was witness to the courage and conduct of both these daring young officers. To those desirous of forming some idea of the nature of the fortress of Chapultepec, the Mexican West Point, and of the difficulties to be overcome in an assault upon it, we would mention that a small oil painting, taken in 1837, may be seen at the Patriot office."
- Niles Register 13 Nov 1847

Jones, John
Born in Ga Appointed from Ga Cadet Mil Acad 1 July 1832 to Feb 1833 Capt of Inf 23 Feb 1847 Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 Disbanded 30 Aug 1848
GA State Treasurer 1861-5
 Full biography with portrait:
"Captain Jones was born in Milledgeville Baldwin county Ga on July 3rd 1814....Securing an appointment to West Point he transferred his youthful activities to this famous military school and here he applied himself with great zeal to his books and made an excellent record for scholarship but on account of an unfortunate misunderstanding with one of his professors for which he was in no wise to blame he voluntarily withdrew from the institution and returned home...When Gen Sherman through Milledgeville in 1864 Capt Jones successfully eluded him by carrying off the funds of the State in a wagon and hiding them securely in a place of concealment which was offered in the county near by. Later on during the reconstruction period he evinced his fidelity to official obligations under the most trying circumstances by refusing to surrender the treasury of the State to the military governor appointed to succeed Gov Jenkins and secretly withdrawing from the borders of the State he carried the funds of the office with him to New York where he remained until civil government was restored in the commonwealth Returning home he brought the funds of the office with him and the same legislature which honored Gov Jenkins for preserving the seal of the State likewise conferred upon him the sobriquet of Honest Jack Jones by which he was known throughout the remainder of his days When the seat of government was transferred from Milledgeville to Atlanta,  Capt Jones came to this city to live... died at his home in Milledgeville on February 28th 1893, having reached the ripe old age of seventy eight years...."
Atlanta and its builders: a comprehensive history of the Gate city...,Volume 2 by Thomas H. Martin, 1902,
pp. 667-670
"lives in history as "Honest Jack" Jones"
A standard history of Georgia and Georgians, Volume 2 by Lucian Lamar Knight
"The contents of the treasury were then returned by Jones to the State and an
accurate accounting made by him. He was thereafter known as "Honest Jack" Jones"
Report of proceedings of the ... annual session of the Georgia Bar Association‎ - Page 246
Georgia Bar Association, John Wesley Akin, Orville Augustus Park - Law - 1925
 "Honest Jack Jones" removed by General Meade (in 1868), had been re-elected treasurer, and
his troubles were due to carelessness and not to dishonest motives..."   
History of Georgia, Volume 1‎ - Page 631

Larned, Frank H.
(August 22, 1827- January 8, 1891)
born in Detroit, Michigan - second son of of the late Bejamin F. Larned who was the Paymaster General of the Army -
2 Lt Inf 8 Mar 1847, Voltigeurs 9 Apr 1847, transferred to 2nd Art 27 June 1848, 1 Lt 1 July 1852 ,Capt 28 Apr 1861, Maj 1st Art 3 Jan 1867 retired 5 Feb 1867 (disability) died 8 Jan 1891
- Battle of Hatteras Inlet Batteries, sometimes known as the Battle of Forts Hatteras and Clark, 28 August 1861. U.S. 2nd Artillery, Lt. Frank H. Larned (60 men)- wiki
- Organization of the troops in the Department of the Gulf (Nineteenth Army Corps), Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks, U.S. Army, commanding, April 30, 1863;headquarters Opelousas, La.- DISTRICT OF WEST FLORIDA.(7)Col. WILLIAM C. HOLBROOK.* 2d U.S. Artillery, Battery H, Capt. Frank H. Larned.

- Though silent they speak: the Larned family history By Johney Larned

Leigh, John W.
Born In Va Appointed from Va 1st Lieut of Inf 25 Feb 1847 Voltigeurs В April 1847 Disbanded 31 Aug 1848 Bvt Capt for gallant and meritorious conduct in several affairs with guerillas at Paso Ovejas, National Bridge and Cerro Gerdo on 10, 12 and 15 Aug 1847
"...Lieut John W Leigh of the Voltigeurs acted with conspicuous gallantry led his men against the stone building and with Alvord drove the guerrillas off." p. 411..."After dark Lieutenant Leigh of the Voltigeurs moved up the road and removed the barricade and the next morning the troops advanced and occupied the Cerro Telegrafo Lally's entire loss was two men killed and eleven wounded." p.414
- History of the Mexican War by Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox, 1892
During the Civil War, served as a Major in the 4th Virginia Artillery.

Longnecker, Henry Clay
(April 17, 1820 – September 16, 1871). Henry Clay Longnecker was born in Allen Township, Pennsylvania. He graduated from the Norwich Military Academy of Vermont and from Lafayette College in Easton, Pennsylvania. He studied law, was admitted to the bar and practiced in Easton. He served during the Mexican–American War as first lieutenant, captain, and adjutant in all principal engagements under General Winfield Scott. He was wounded at the Battle of Chapultepec on September 13, 1847. He returned to Pennsylvania, and served as district attorney of Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, from 1848 to 1850. Longnecker was elected as a Republican to the Thirty-sixth Congress. During the American Civil War, Longnecker participated in organizing Pennsylvania troops and served in the Union Army as colonel of the Ninth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. He resumed the practice of his profession in Allentown, Pennsylvania, in 1865. He served as associate judge of Lehigh County in 1867, and died in Allentown in 1871. Interment in Fairview Cemetery.

Marriott, James C.
Born In Md Appointed from Md 1st Lieut of Inf 24 Feb 1847 Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 Capt 18 Sept 1847
"First Lieutenant James C Marriott to be captain September 18 1847 vice Caldwell deceased of wounds received in battle."
Journal of the executive proceedings of the Senate of the United ..., Volume 7 by United States. Congress. 

named as co-conspirator in plan for Cuban independence and annexation to the US in 1849, with warrant issued for arrest. Jefferson Davis recommended then Army Major RE Lee as commander to Lopez. President Taylor disbanded the 1849 expedition to preserve neutrality but declined to seek criminal proceedings against those concerned. pp. 25-26 and participant in the 1850 Lopez Expedition p. 371
Cuban Confederate colonel: the life of Ambrosio Josʹe Gonzales by Antonio Rafael De la Cova
- Lopez expeditions to Cuba 1848-1851 by Robert Granville Caldwell

"James C. Marriott, of Maryland Commissioned Secretary of Legation Peru 12 1853 Resigned November 27 1854" due to ill health
Biographical annals of the civil government of the United States: by Charles Lanman

"Marylanders for gallant and meritorious conduct in Mexico resolution 79 to Lt AH Cross Robt Swan Robt H Archer and Wm H Fitzhugh of the Regiment of Voltigeurs natives of Maryland for their intrepid and gallant conduct in the same war Resolution 14 tendered thanks to Lt James Madison Frailey USN 12 to Major John R Kenly 13 to Lt Isaac S Sterritt USN 15 to Captain Henry Little 7th Regiment USI 16 to James E Stewart of the Volunteers 17 to Major Daniel H McPhail of the US Infantry Major Howard Major Archer Captain James C Marriott and Captain James Piper.."
A history of the General Assembly of Maryland, 1635-1904 by Elihu Samuel Riley
247th Session December 31st 1849 At Annapolis

Martin, William J.
Born In Penn Appointed from Penn 2nd Lieut 5 March 1847 Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 Disbanded 31 Aug 1848 Bvt 1st Lieut 13 Sept 1S47 for gallant and meritorious conduct at Chapultepec 
- List of officers of the army of the United States from 1779 to 1900 William Henry Powell, 1900

Marvin, Edwin C.
Born In Conn Appointed from Pa 2nd Lieut Inf 25 March 1847 Voltiguers 0 April 1S47 RQM 15 Sept 1847 to 29 Aug 1848 Disbanded 20 Aug 1848

McIntosh, Leonidas
- b. 1824, d. 1857, in Nicaragua.
- attended school in PA - - see A history of Nazareth hall, from 1755 to 1855: and of the reunions of its ...‎ - Page 80
- officer in Mexican War - 1847-48 - Lieutenant and later Captain with the Voltigeur and Foot Riflemen Regiment in the Mexican War:
- (Leonidas McIntosh) as a special agent to Brazil in 1849 he filed a report - Record of the Department of State, Communications from special agents, 1794-1906 -
see also  Executive agents in American foreign relations‎ - Page 832
- miscellaneous documents‎ - Page 151 house of representatives - 1853...Leonidas McIntosh: For services as assistant clerk of House of Representatives, under resolutions of the House of 2d September, 1850, and 22d December, at
-THE WASHINGTON AND GEORGETOWN DIRECTORY‎ - Page 39 1853... Leonidas Mcintosh, US Hotel
- In May 1856, Leonidas Mclntosh was appointed Major of the 2d Battalion Light Infantry "Nicaraguan Army". see Walker's Expedition to Nicaragua: A History of the Central American War; By William Vincent Wells, 1856 p.252.
- At its height this army numbered possibly 1,200 Americans. According to impartial author Daniel Lucas in 1896 "the impression that Walker's ranks were recruited mainly from the Southern States. No conception could be more erroneous. Among his officers many were English and German, such as Henningsen, Doubleday, Schwartz, and Swingle. Still more were northern, such as the gallant Anderson, the feeble Lockridge, Dolan, and many others. Two States supplied beyond question the majority of his private recruits—New York and California. These were both free States." see Nicaragua: War of the Filibusters By Daniel Bedinger Lucas, 1896 [The Filibusters organizationl unit names included Rifle, Voltigeur, Light and Rangers - RG]
- In 1856, a Lieutenant Colonel Leonidas McIntosh was associated with the exploits of the infamous filibuster and "illegal" President of Nicaragua William Walker (TN); apparently as Commandant of the town of Masaya, McIntosh was involved or may have ordered the execution of 4 young Nicaraguans - exact role undetermined from translation of website, which references Historical Complete Works of Masaya historian Jerome Perez Marenco and cites "The War in Nicaragua, written by William Walker" (page No. 277)-
Walker made effective use of the 1841 Mountain Howitzer - the Voltigeurs artillery piece and something McIntosh would likely have been experienced with - see Bull Pup:The 1841 Mountain Howitzer by Steven Grizzell
 "New comers however began to arrive to take place of those cut off by battle and disease On morning of the 21st of April (1856) the steamer arrived Granada with about two hundred men in charge General Hornsby who had been absent on business the United States As the Americans had been reorganized after the 13th in two battalions one rifle the other light infantry the new recruits were formed into a second infantry battalion with Leonidas Mclntosh as major and James Walker and James Mullen as captains Upward of twenty men had come at their own expense to Granada and they were enlisted for four months and put into the rangers under Captain Davenport This addition to the numbers of the army course re animated the old troops for some of them considering the services they had seen might with propriety be called old troops and after the arrival of the new men all were as eager as ever to march against the enemy at Rivas .....In the beginning of September 1856 the army of Nicaragua was organized in two battalions of Rifles two of Light Infantry one of Rangers and a small company of Artillery The First Rifles was the fullest as well as the best corps of the army and it scarcely mustered two hundred effective men The Second Rifles was a mere shadow of a battalion and its discipline was almost entirely neglected The Light Infantry battalions were larger than the Second Rifles and some companies ot these as for example the company of Capt Henry ot the Second Infantry were in good order and condition The Rangers consisted of three small companies under the command of Major Waters and were capable of effective service Capt Schwartz with a few artillerymen had shown capacity for organizing his corps and possessed knowledge in his profession he having served for some time as an artillery officer in Baden during the revolutionary troubles of 1848 The whole effective force scarcely amounted to eight hundred men. Gen Hornsby was in command of the Meridional Department having his headquarters sometimes at San Jorge sometimes at Rivas and sometimes at San Juan del Sur He had with him some companies of the First Infantry and the artillery squad it could scarcely be called a company of Capt Schwartz The First Rifles were at Granada while the Second Rifles under Lieut Col McDonald were at Tipitapa The Second Infantry were at Masaya and in the absence of Col Jaquess it was commanded by Lieut Col Mclntosh. Capt Dolan had been in command of a company of Rifles at Managua but about the middle of September Major Waters was sent thither with his Rangers The principal depot of commissary quartermaster and ordnance stores and all the workshops of the army were at Granada The San Juan river was guarded by two companies of infantry and Lieut Col Rudler was placed in charge of that frontier....Major Waters watched closely the advance of the Allies and by the firm front he showed at Managua delayed them for several days on the road between that place and Leon When however Belloso approached within a few miles of Managua Waters received orders to fall back to Masaya At the latter place Lieutenant Colonel Mclntosh was commanding and the garrison consisted of about two hundred and fifty men these had been increased in numbers though not much in strength by the Second Rifles from Tipitapa Subsistence for many....The commanding officer Lieutenant Colonel Mclntosh was sadly deficient both in knowledge and force of character and the effect of his irresolution was such that it was clear the force at Masaya could not be depended on for holding the town against the advancing enemy. After halting a short time at Managua Belloso continued to advance and at Nindiri a league from Ma saya he was joined by Martinez and his followers from Chontales and Matagalpa thus swelling the allied force to twenty two or twenty three hundred men The moral condition of the command at Masaya was such that Mclntosh received orders to retire on Granada and the state of his men may be judged from the manner in which they left Masaya Such was the haste and confusion....Mclntosh might have been deliberate even slow in his movement with entire safety for Belloso did not enter Masaya for some hours after it was abandoned by the Americans...  "
- The War in Nicaragua by William Walker, published 1860
p. 207, pp.281-282, 288
see also:

- With Walker in Nicaragua: or, Reminiscences of an officer of the American by James Carl Jamison, 1909
-  Nicaragua: War of the Filibusters By Daniel Bedinger Lucas, 1896
- The Story of the Filibusters to Which Is Added the Life of Col. David Crockett
by James Jeffrey Roche
- Reminiscences of the "filibuster" war in Nicaragua by Charles William Doubleday, 1886

Ironically, Leonidas McIntosh' own relation "Commodore James M Mcintosh"  in command of the Home Squadron was cautioned on November 17 (1858) by Secretary of the Navy Toucey to be vigilant and intercept any unlawful expedition headed for Nicaragua To avoid repetition of the Paulding affair Mcintosh was ordered to interfere only at sea You will not do this within any harbor nor land any part of your forces for the purpose." see Proceedings, Volume 44, Part 2 - 1918  by United States Naval Institute - The Navy and Filibustering in the Fifties 
- What motivated Leonidas McIntosh to "filibuster" with Walker and forfeit his life in Nicaragua in 1857?
From author Robert May comes a recent definitive look at the Filibuster phenomenon and motivation, which enables us to see that McIntosh, an army veteran, was not alone in his ambitions:
Young American Males and Filibustering in the Age of Manifest Destiny
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Quick View
by Robert E. May - 1991

later a book - "Manifest Destiny's Underworld: Filibustering in Antebellum America"   
Robert E. May - 2004 - 448 pages

- son of J. S. McIntosh (GA)- 1st Rifle Regiment - postwar Rifle Regiment -Second Lt Rifle. 13 Nov. 1812: First Lt Dec. 1813: distinguished under Maj. Appling at Sandy Creek : wounded under Maj. L. Morgan, in affair near Black Rock 3 Aug. 1814: retained, Dec. 1815, in Rifle. : Capt Mar. 1817 : transferred Sept 1818, to Ordnance: in 4th infy May 1821 : bvt Major 'ten yrs. faithful service 8 Mar. 1827: Major 7th infy 21 Sept. 1836: Lt colonel 5th infy 1 July 1839: bvt Colonel "for gallantry and distinguished service in battles of Palo Alto and Rio de la Palma" 9 May 1846 (Aug 1846) in which he was dangerously wounded: commanded his brigade in Worth's division and distinguished, in battle of Churubusco: commanding a brigade and distinguishing in the storming of Él Molino 8 Sept 47, in which again severely wounded and died of his wounds 26 Sept 1847.
Col. James Simmons McIntosh's official report concerning the battle of August 20 1847 - Battle of Contreras and Churubusco Official Reports -Fort McIntosh (TX) was established in early 1849 as one of a chain of border forts. The Mexican War has just ended and Laredo, Texas was an easy crossing point for Mexicans and Indians determined to raid into the U.S. Originally named Camp Crawford, the fort was renamed to Fort McIntosh in 1850 to honor Lieutenant Colonel James Simmons McIntosh, who had been killed at the Mexican War Battle of Molino del Rey. Portrait at James Simmons McIntosh, Colonel of the 5th United States Infantry
-grandson of Lieut. Col. John McIntosh, (1755-1826) commandant of Fort Morris when the British demanded its surrender, and he replied, "Come and take it." He displayed great bravery at Briar Creek, 1779, where he was wounded and taken prisoner - born and died in McIntosh county, Ga; great grandson of William McIntosh (1726-96), served in the Continental Army and was delegate to the first Provincial Congress at Savannah, 1775. He was born in Scotland; died in Darien, Ga. His brother Lachlan was a distinguished brigadier general.-Lineage Book By Daughters of the American RevolutionGen. John McIntosh, son of Col. William McIntosh, was the father of Maj. William Jackson McIntosh, Maj. John Nash McIntosh and Col. James Simmons McIntosh of the United States Army and Mexican War, whose sons were Capt. Leonidas McIntosh of Mexican War and Gen. John Baillie McIntosh of the Federal Army, who lost a leg [battle of Opequan, Virginia], and his brother Gen. James McQueen McIntosh of the Confederate Army, killed at Oak Ridge [Pea Ridge]..."- A SKETCH OF THE McINTOSH FAMILY - The Magazine of History with Notes and Queries - Contributor Published 1908 -google book - [see RECOLLECTIONS OF A NAVAL LIFE Including the Cruises of the Confederate States Steamers "Sumter" and "Alabama" Kell, John McIntosh, 1823-1900] - google book see Lachlan McIntosh - - for fuller portraits of this distinguished soldier and naval family - see McIntosh-The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans - By Rossiter Johnson, and Brown, John Howard, - google book

Slaughter, James E.
Born In Va Appointed from Va 2nd Lieut Inf 5 March 1847 Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 2nd Lieut 1st Art 27 June 1848 1st Lieut 3 Aug 1852 Dismissed 14 May 1861

Born June 1827, Cedar Mountain VA - Died January 1 1901, Mexico City, Mexico
Pre-War Profession Commissioned in US army, Mexican War, dismissed May 1861.
War Service 1861 Capt. in artillery, staff of Bragg in Florida, Maj., March 1862 Brig. Gen., staff of A S Johnston, similarly for Beauregard and Bragg, chief of artillery to Magruder, later chief of staff, Brownsville.
CSA - BG Seventh (Texas) Brigade.
Post War Career Emigrated to Mexico, returned to US, civil engineer, postmaster.
 Great-nephew of President James Madison.

Smith, Isaac W.
Born In Va Appointed from Va 2nd Lieut of Inf S March 1847 Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 Disbanded 31 Aug 1848
"Col. Isaac Williams Smith was born in Fredricksburg, Virginia in 1826. After graduating from the Virginia Military Institute, Lt. Smith fought in the Mexican War in a Voltiguer Regiment. He became a surveyor and engineer after the War, but promptly enlisted in the Confederate Army when his home state was invaded by the Union. Smith was commissioned a Captain with the Engineers for the Army of Northern Virginia, in command of the pontoon service. Capt. Smith served through the entire conflict, directly involved in the defenses of Petersburg and Richmond in 1864-65, and was present at Appomattox Courthouse for the surrender. Smith headed west and surveyed Vancouver Island, mapped out the water works for the City of Tacoma, built the Locks at Oregon City, and became Portland's first Chief of Water Works being directly responsible for the Bull Run reservoir which still supplies Portland with its water today. He obtained his commission as a Colonel after the War while leading surveying expeditions through the mountains of California and the Pacific-Northwest drawing detailed maps and finding suitable passes for trains. "The Colonel", as he was commonly known, died in 1897. He is buried in a very plain grave at River View Cemetery in SW Portland. -
Isaac Smith found the route for a pipeline to Portland and accepted the challenge to build it with confidence. Before he came to Portland he:
•helped survey the Iowa-Minnesota border;
•served in the Confederate Army's Engineer Corps;
•conducted surveys on Vancouver Island and in Washington;
•planned railroad right of ways;
•constructed locks at Willamette Falls near Oregon City;
•platted gas and water works for Tacoma.
Isaac Smith served as the first Superintendent and first Chief Engineer for the Water Committee from 1885-1897. During those years he worked on
* improving the interim Palatine Hill Works until Bull Run came on line;
* overseeing 24 miles of pipeline construction through old growth forest and brush;
* planning and building Headworks and the roads and bridges needed for the pipeline passage;
* overseeing upgrades of the city's mains and distribution pipe;
* coordinating the construction of reservoirs at Mount Tabor and City (now Washington) Park. Portland history books refer to him as the "Father" of Portland 's water system.
He was born in Fredricksburg, Virginia, in 1826 and graduated from the Virginia Military Institute. In the Confederate Army he was "Colonel." He was present at Appomattox Courthouse for the surrender. A bachelor and son of a minister, Smith generously gave much of his earnings to his father, mother and sisters. A Water Committee report notes his starting salary as $400 per month. His dedication to work is the stuff of legend. He took to his bed on Christmas Day, 1896, with pneumonia. Over the next three days he suffered bouts of chills and fever. His last words before death were, "How is the wingdam in the Sandy getting along? I hope the cost of it will not exceed the estimate of $600. I would not like to have the cost exceed the estimate." His obituary in The Oregonian called this devotion to duty his "sterling and unapproachable integrity...his great but unostentatious love for all created things." Tricia Knoll, Public Information -

Swan, Robert T.
Born In Md Appointed from Md 2nd Lieut Inf 23 Feb 1847 Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 Disbanded 31 Aug 1848

Talcott, George A
Born In NY Appointed from NYJ Bvt 2nd Lieut 3rd Art 1 July 1831 2nd Lieut 30 June 1833 1st Lieut 15 Sept 1830 1st Lieut Ord 0 July 1838 Capt 3 March 1847 Maj Voltigeurs April 1847 Died 8 June 1854 Bvt 1st Lieut 31 Dec 1835 for gallant conduct in the war against the Florida Indians Bvt Maj and Lieut Col 8 Sept 1847 for gallant and meritorious conduct in the Battle of Molino del Key Mélico

"Jesse Lee Reno, Class of 1846, received two brevets and was severely wounded at Chapultepec while serving in an innovative mountain howitzer and rocket unit, usually in charge of the 57 mm and 83 mm rockets. A major general of U.S. Volunteers in the Civil War, he was killed leading his corps at the Battle of South Mountain, MD. George H. Talcott, Class of 1831, commanded the unique unit, and Franklin D. Callender, Class of 1839 and also wounded at Chapultepec, was the third officer of the battery." -
"On November 19, 1846 Major General Winfield Scott was selected to lead an expeditionary force to Veracruz, Mexico and on to Mexico City. His force included a brigade of rocketeers, the first in the history of the United States armed forces. Volunteers for this rocket brigade were solicited via posters beginning on December 4, 1846. Posters requested, "active, brave young men to serve with rocket and mountain howitzer batteries, now preparing by the Ordnance Department for immediate departure." Training of this brigade was conducted at Fort Monroe, Virginia. The battery, including the rocketeers, was placed under the command of First Lt. George H. Talcott. The rocket brigade itself was placed under the command of Brevet Second Lt. Jesse Lee Reno. The rocket brigade consisted of 150 men and their equipment, which included a number of 2.25-inch, 6-pound versions of the Hale rocket. The rocket brigade departed Fort Monroe on February 1, 1847 on the bark Saint Cloud. The rocket brigade joined Scott's expeditionary forces on the island of Lobos, 200 miles north of Veracruz, in late February. The force sailed on to Anton Lizardo, then to Sacrificios, located just three miles southeast of Veracruz. The main landing at Veracruz took place on March 9, 1847 when 67 surf boats, each carrying 75 to 80 men including the rocket brigade, sailed ashore. Troops quickly advanced to Veracruz, which was placed under siege. The first Hale rockets were launched on March 24, 1847 against Veracruz fortifications. The city surrendered on March 29, 1847. On April 8, 1847 the rocket brigade moved inland, having been transferred to the command of General David Twiggs. The force quickly advanced along a route discovered by Captain Robert E. Lee. A rocket battery was established at La Atalaya after its occupation. About 30 rockets were fired against El Telegrafo Hill on April 18, 1847. In August, 1847 rockets were being fired against Mexican forces in and around Mexico City, most notably at Cherubusco. On September 12 and 13, 1847 a rocket barrage was effectively used to soften Mexican positions during the storming of Chapultepec. The rocket brigade was disbanded in 1848 as the Mexican War drew to a close. United States forces made good use of Hale rockets, and may have also defended themselves against Mexican rockets. A number of Congreve rockets were included in the captured arsenals of Santa Anna, although there are no specific accounts of the rockets being fired in battle."
- History of Rocketry: 18th and 19th Centuries

Tilton, James
Born in Del Appointed from Md 1st Lieut of Inf 5 March 1847 Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 Disbanded 3 Aug 1848 Died 24 Nov 1878
"Richmond Whig, May 5, 1848: Proceedings of the Court of Inquiry in the Case of Gen. Pillow.
Lieut. TILTON, Voltigeurs, called and sworn.
Questions by the Prosecution—Has the witness chanced to hear Maj. Gen. Pillow, since the entry of the American army into this city, speak of the effects of the battle of the Molino del Rey upon the energies of Maj. Gen. Scott, and
that he, the said Scott, subsequent to that battle, required to be stimulate to further action by the said Pillow? If so, give the remarks of the said Pillow on the subject.
A—On or about the 22d of Sept., I, together with another officer, paid a visit of ceremony to Gen. Pillow. Upon that occasion, the conversation turned upon the battles preceding our entrance into the City. Maj. Gen. Pillow stated
to us that the battle of Molino del Rey was an unfortunate affair: He informed us that we had lost 860 men, which loss we (meaning the General officers) sedulously concealed from the army, lest it might have a dispiriting effect on the men, and that Gen. Scott was stunned or paralysed by this lose; and consequently, upon himself, as second in command devolved the subsequent movements—or words to that effect: I don’t recollect exactly the words he used. I was also given to understand at the same time, by gen. Pillow, that the conception, as well as the execution, of the assault upon Chapultepec, originated with himself. With the exception of some personal compliments on ourselves and the Voltigeur Regiment, that was, I believe, the substance of the conversation.
By Gen. Pillow—Witness will state what officer was present with him when this conversation was held which he detailed. And where was Gen. Pillow, and what was his condition?
A—Capt. Barnard was with me. There were one or two officers there when we came,—but I don’t know who they were,—together with a citizen, an Englishman.—Gen. Pillow was in bed, apparently suffering from his wounds...
Q—Was the witness with the Voltigeur Regiment in that assault upon Chapultepec; were you among the first who entered that work, and was that regiment in the advance in this assault?
A—Upon the Western side, in the redoubt, a storming party of infantry formed with us at the foot of the hill.Being struck down myself at that place, I know not which party entered first, but on overtaking them a few minutes
after I recovered, I found them pell mell; upon a second rush the Voltiguers got the advance. The first ladders were planted by my order, by the men under my command, and the five first that went up I knew were from the Voltigeurs, indeed I myself was the fifth, the Voltigeurs were certainly the first men in that part of the work. I saw no other when we got in. What happened on the other side of the hill I know nothing about.
Q—The witness had spoken of the storming party of infantry. Does he mean the 9th and 15th Infantry of Gen.Pillow’s Division?
A—No sir; I mean the 250 regulars of the old regiment, under a Captain whose name I can’t recall to memory.— When I stated that they formed with us, I meant that we waited until they came up, by order of Major Caldwell, and then a rush was made...."
- RW48v25i36p1c3, May 5, 1848: Proceedings of the Court of Inquiry in the Case of Gen. Pillow.

Walker, James H
Born In Tenn Appointed from Ark Capt AOM Vols 4 Aug 1846 Resigned 9 Sept 1847 Capt Voltigeurs 9 Sept 1847 Disbanded 31 Aug 1848
Digging for History at Old Washington (Hempstead County in southwest Arkansas) by Mary L. Kwas, Jay S. Miller

Walker, William Stephen
Born in Pa; Appointed from Miss 1st Lieut of Inf 27 Feb 1847 Voltigeurs 9 April 1847 Reg Adj 1 May to 15 June 1847 Disbanded 31 Aug 1848 apt 1st Cav 3 March 1855 Resigned к 7 61 Prt Capt 13 Sept 1847 for gallant and meritorious conduct at the Battle oi Chapultepec Mexico
- List of officers of the army of the United States from 1779 to 1900 William Henry Powell, 1900 
Born April 13 1822, Pittsburgh PA - Died June 7 1899, Atlanta GA
Pre-War Profession Mexican War, 1855 commissioned Capt. of cavalry in US Army, resigned May 1861.
War Service March 1861 Lt. in Confederate army, administrative duties, Col., October 1862 Brig. Gen., command of a military district in South Carolina, given brigade command in Kinston NC, Petersburg (w,c), served in North Carolina.

"William Stephen Walker (April 13, 1822 – June 7, 1899) was a Confederate States Army brigadier general during the American Civil War (Civil War). He was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania but was raised by an uncle from Mississippi, who was a Secretary of the Treasury and U.S. Senator....
Walker volunteered for U.S. Army service in the Mexican-American War and was appointed first lieutenant in the infantry on February 27, 1847. On April 9, 1847, he was assigned to the 1st U.S. Regiment of Voltiguers and Foot Riflemen, a light infantry regiment. He was regimental adjutant between May 1, 1847 and June 15, 1847. Walker was appointed a brevet captain for his role in the Battle of Chapultepec, September 13, 1847. With the disbanding of the Voltiguer regiment at the end of the war, Walker was discharged on August 31, 1848. Walker returned to the U.S. Army as a captain of the 1st U.S. Cavalry Regiment on March 3, 1855 when the army was expanded during that year.
American Civil War service: William S. Walker resigned from the U.S. Army on May 1, 1861. He had already been appointed a captain in the infantry of the Army of the Confederate States (the regular army of the Confederate States) on March 16, 1861 or, according to other versions, was appointed to this position soon after his resignation from the U.S. Army. He was appointed as from Florida. Early in the war, he served as a mustering officer. Walker served as an aide-de-camp to General Robert E. Lee from November 5, 1861 to December 1861. Walker served as assistant inspector general, Department of South Carolina, Georgia and East Florida, December 1861 to March 14, 1862. He was promoted to colonel and assistant inspector general on March 22, 1862. On May 29, 1862, Walker was in immediate command of a force which drove off a Union Army force at the Battle of Pocotaligo, South Carolina as they tried to expand their bridgehead from Port Royal, South Carolina gained at the Battle of Port Royal, on November 7, 1861. Walker was promoted to brigadier general on October 22, 1862. He was alternately twice in charge of the Third Subdistrict and Fourth Subdistrict of the District of South Carolina. He was in command at Kinston, North Carolina, where he had just gone on April 29, 1864, when he was called to help General P.G.T. Beauregard defend Petersburg, Virginia during the Overland Campaign on May 17, 1864. On May 20, 1864, William Stephen Walker was severely wounded and captured at the Battle of Ware Bottom Church during the Bermuda Hundred Campaign. He was wounded in the left arm and lost his left leg after he led a charge into the Union line and was subjected to a rifle volley after refusing to surrender and then captured. Walker thought he was mortally wounded but was saved by Union surgeon John J. Craven at Fort Monroe, who amputated his leg. He was exchanged on October 29, 1864. Walker served at Weldon, North Carolina from October 29, 1864 to May 1, 1865 and was in command in North Carolina at the end of the war. He was paroled at Greensboro, North Carolina on May 1, 1865. After the Civil War, Walker moved to Georgia. William Stephen Walker died at Atlanta Georgia on June 7, 1899. He is buried in Oakland Cemetery at Atlanta.
Longacre, Edward G. "Walker, William Stephen" in Historical Times Illustrated History of the Civil War, edited by Patricia L. Faust. New York: Harper & Row, 1986"

Winder, James M.
Born in Md Second Lt Voltigeurs 23 Feb 47 distinguished and mortally wound in action under Maj Lally at the National Bridge Mex and died 6 Sept 47 at Jalapa
"Lieut James M Winder Voltigeurs was mortally wounded while aiding in withdrawing the artillery one of his men was killed and seven wounded In Lieutenant Wilkins company.."p. 412
- History of the Mexican War by Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox, 1892


Heckman, Charles Adam,
soldier, born in Easton, Pennsylvania, 3 December, 1822. He was graduated at Minerva seminary, in his native town, in 1837. In the war with Mexico he served as sergeant in the 1st United States voltigeurs. He was commissioned captain in the 1st Pennsylvania regiment, 20 April, 1861, became major of the 9th New Jersey on 3 October, lieutenant-colonel on 3 December, and colonel on 10 February, 1862. On 29 November, 1862, he was made brigadier-general of volunteers, he served in Burnside's expedition to North Carolina, and afterward in the Army of the James, being wounded at Newbern and Young's Cross Roads, North Carolina, and Port Walthall, Virginia.  He commanded the defences of Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia, in the winter of 1863-'4, and at Drewry's Bluff, Virginia, on 16 May, 1864, he was captured, after his brigade had five times repelled a superior force of Confederates. He was taken to Libby prison, and afterward to Macon, Georgia, and Charleston, South Carolina, where he was one of the fifty-one officers that were placed under fire of the National guns. He was exchanged on 25 August, commanded the 18th corps at the capture of Fort Harrison, Chapin's Bluff, and the 25th corps in January and February, 1865. He resigned when the war was over, 25 May, 1865, and now (1887) resides in Phillipsburg, New Jersey, where he has served as a member of the board of education. -
"...He was wounded at the battle of Port Walthall Junction and taken prisoner at the battle of  Proctor's Creek. In September 1864 he was exchanged and, when he returned  to duty, was assigned to command the 2nd Division in the XVIII Corps.  Heckman led his division at the battle of Chaffin's Farm in support of
General George J. Stannard's main attack against Fort Harrison. When  Heckman moved forward his troops veered off far to the north. Instead  of coming directly to the aid of Stannard's division, Heckman's men
launched a costly attack against Confederate trenches near Forts Gilmer and Johnson[2]. During the fighting in Fort Harrison, XVIII Corps commander Edward O. C. Ord was severely wounded and carried from the field. Heckman then assumed command of the corps. With this change in command at a crucial point the fighting ground to a halt and the Union forces constructed a defensive line. After an undistinguished show of leadership during the fighting on September 29, army commander Benjamin F. Butler decided to replace Heckman in command of the corps with his chief of staff, Godfrey Weitzel. Returning to command his division, Heckman helped repulse the Confederate attack the following day. In December Heckman was transferred to command the 3rd Division in the newly created XXV Corps. Briefly from January to February in 1865 he was in command of the XXV Corps, but resigned from the army on May 25, 1865.
Heckman returned to work for the New Jersey Central Railroad as a conductor and railroad dispatcher following the war."
1 Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3., p.292
2 Kennedy, Frances H., ed., The Civil War Battlefield Guide, 2nd ed., Houghton Mifflin Co., 1998, ISBN 0-395-74012-6., p.363

Mendenhall, William S.
corporal US Voltigeurs
Captain, Company Commander, COMPANY D CONCORDVILLE RIFLES 97th PA Volunteer Infantry Regiment 1861-1864
"The fourth company of the 97th Regiment was recruited by William S Mendenhall of Chadd's Ford Delaware County Pa He was descended from a family of English Quakers who emigrated to America during the persecutions of that people in England and settled in Concord Delaware County contemporary with the William Penn settlers in Pennsylvania....William S Mendenhall (was) born at the historic locality of Chadd's Ford October 13 1830 At the death of his parents, when about five years of age, he went to reside with his Grandfather Speakman who sent him regularly to school until about thirteen years of age when the death of his grandfather occurred. He then found a home with Mr James Cloud of Concordville Delaware County where he remained going to school occasionally until near sixteen years of age when he found a place in the office of Hon Nimrod Strickland editor of the American Republican at West Chester Pa. About a year after when the Mexican War broke out young Mendenhall, fired with patriotic ardor, volunteered under the call of President Polk in December 1846 for ten new regiments to reinforce the army in Mexico. He joined and was appointed a corporal in Capt CJ Biddle's company in Philadelphia which was ordered to rendezvous at Brazos Santiago in February 1847. It was then assigned to the 1st Regiment US Voltigeurs under command of Col FP Andrews with Lieut Col Joseph E Johnson and Majs Talbot and Caldwell all of the USA He participated with his regiment in the siege of Vera Cruz under Gen Scott and with Gen Cadwalader in the battles of Cerro Gordo Jalapa Perote and Puebla and in assisting to keep open communication between Vera Cruz and Puebla afterwards in the valley of the city of Mexico at the battle of Contreras August 20 1847 at Buena Vista Cherubusco and Molino del Rey September 11 and at Casa del Mata where he was wounded in the right foot on the 13th of September at the fierce storming of Chepultepec the key to the gates of Mexico he was again slightly wounded in the head and was with the final assault upon the last defences of the city and the triumphal entrance into the Mexican capital He remained with the army of occupa tion until after the conclusion of peace July 4 1848 His regiment left Mexico in October and was disbanded at Fort McHenry Baltimore November 1848.
After an honorable discharge and with the commendation of his officers for faithful services he returned to West Chester being then about eighteen years of age. The discovery of gold in California during the winter of 1848 having attracted his attention he joined a company of adventurers known as the Philadelphia Mining Company. Their vessel the Clarissa Perkins sailed in January 1849 After a tedious and eventful voyage around Cape Horn they arrived at San Francisco having been out eight months and fourteen days.having eight days. The city at that time was a motley collection of tents and houses property of every description being strewn about without owners people having abandoned all and emigrated to the mines. This company followed the example in eager haste to reach the El Dorado. After a varied experience at the mines on Sacramento and American Rivers attended by little success he joined Col Fremont's exploring party for Southern California in the Fall of 1849 but pursued by hostile Indians the party returned to winter at Long Gulch and engaged in mining successfully. He remained in California until the summer of 1858, continued mining at various places, and was connected with prospecting parties in exploring, while a wilderness, most of the places that have since become noted towns and cities peopled with numerous inhabitants prosperous in the products of adventurous enterprise and wealth. He was also active in the organization of companies of mounted men for defence against hostile Indians who resisted the presence of the white man in his native wilds. The narration of these adventures affording material and interest for a volume would be too extensive for the present sketch After ten years of pioneer life with its attendant hardships and exposures Mr Mendenhall returned to the Atlantic States in the summer of 1858 The next two years were spent in traveling through the Northern and Southern States, During 1860, he was in Texas and Alabama while Yancey Rhett and others were firing the Southern heart and was present when the secession declaration of the Montgomery convention was received with the wildest joy by the people. The firing upon Maj Anderson at Fort Sumter the attack of the Alabama State troops on Mount Vernon Island and the forts of Mobile harbor and the treachery of Gen Twiggs in Texas, events following in such rapid succession, determined the patriotic young democrat to choose sides in the coming conflict involving the life of his country. Quietly making his arrangements he resolved to proceed north by the first opportunity. This he effected arriving at Wilmington Del in time to join the 1st Delaware Regiment three months volunteers under the first call of President Lincoln for seventy five thousand men on April 26 1861. The regiment was commanded by Col HH Lockwood and was by the War Department stationed upon duty on the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad from Havre de Grace to Baltimore to guard the road and bridges from interruption and keep open the line of communication to Washington during the gathering of the army. The regiment was disbanded at the expiration of the three months service at Wilmington August 7 1861. Upon his return at the end of that service with the 1st Delaware Regiment. WS Mendenhall was solicited by several of his Delaware acquaintances to form a company for the three years service in which his Delaware County friends also joined and having received from Col Guss authority to recruit a company for the 97th Regiment, he determined to canvass in Delaware County with head quarters at Concordville, Within a few days over fifty men signed the roll of his company which was called the Concordville Rifles in honor of his boyhood home. A meeting was called at Media on August 23 1861 to organize the company and select its officers. It was held at the office of Jesse L Cummins Esq...William S Mendenhall was elected captain by acclamation...They returned home with the veterans of the Regiment upon veteran furlough of thirty days under command of Capt WS Mendenhall starting from Fernandina Fla on the 27th of March 1864..." - History of the Ninety-seventh regiment: Pennsylvania volunteer infantry Isaiah Price
(the 97th was involved in actions in Hilton Head, NC; Warsaw Sound, GA; Fernandia and Jacksonville FL; and Morris Island, SC among others....the most famous action, in which the 97th took part, was the assault of Fort Wagner on Morris Island outside Charleston harbor, SC.   From July 18 to September 7, 1863, the 97th took part in the assaults and seige of Fort Wagner as part of the Union attempt to capture Charleston.
- 97th PA Volunteer Infantry - reenactor

Webb, Robert H.
"aged 18 years, born Gibson, Tennessee, was described as having gray eyes, black hair, a fair complexion, stood 5'5" tall and was by occupation a laborer when he enlisted 16 April 1847 (place of enlistment obscured on roll) to Lieutenant Kiger for the duration of the War with Mexico. He was assigned to Company E of the Regiment of United States Voltiguers & Foot Riflemen (regulars), commanded by Colonel Timothy P. Andrews. He was discharged 31 August 1848 at Fort McHenry, Maryland by reason of expiration of term of service." -
- Webb's in the Military

Rocket and Mountain Howitzer Battery:

Reno, Jesse L.
Born In Va Appointed from Pa Bvt 2nd Llout Ord 1 Julv 1830 2nd Lieut 3 March 1847 1st Lieut 3 March 1853 Capt 1 July 1800 Brig Gen Vols 12 Xov 1861 Maj Gen Vols 18 July 1862.
Killed at Ihe Battle of South Mountain Md 14 Sept 1S02 Bvt 1st Lieut 18 April 1847 for gallant and meritorious conduct at Corro Gordo Pvt Capt 13 Sept 1847 for gallant and meritorious conduct at Chapultepec  
"The mountain howitzer battery, under Lieut. Reno, of the ordinance, deserves, also, to be particularly mentioned. Attached to the voltigeurs, to follow the movements of that regiment, and again it won applause." - Report of Major General Scott [No. 34] Headquarters of the Army National Palace of Mexico September 18, 1847 

"Jesse L. Reno remained with the Ordnance Department until he was requested to serve as an infantry brigade commander by Union Major General Ambrose E. Burnside during the Civil War. In less than a year, Reno was promoted from ordnance captain to major general in command of the IX Corps of the Army of the Potomac. Having survived serious wounds in the Mexican War, he was killed in action at the Battle of South Mountain on September 14, 1862."
- The Regiment of Voltigeurs, USA - A Case Study of the Mexican-American War by Erik Donald France,usa

"Jesse Lee Reno, Class of 1846, received two brevets and was severely wounded at Chapultepec while serving in an innovative mountain howitzer and rocket unit, usually in charge of the 57 mm and 83 mm rockets. A major general of U.S. Volunteers in the Civil War, he was killed leading his corps at the Battle of South Mountain, MD. George H. Talcott, Class of 1831, commanded the unique unit, and Franklin D. Callender, Class of 1839 and also wounded at Chapultepec, was the third officer of the battery."
- Gray Matter- J Phoenix Esq., Thursday, 10 September 2009 Chapultepec

- History of Rocketry: 18th and 19th Centuries

- History of the Mexican War by Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox, 1892, pp. 651-652

RG - an erroneous entry is found above (Wilcox, 1892) reference James N Caldwell (Ohio) - this officer should be listed as James H Calwell born in MD, commissioned from VA; who died from wounds received 18 Sept 1847 in Mexico. The original 1847 list found in Robarts, 1887 and Company Commander list (below) are correct.

Company Commanders:

- National Intelligencer Newspaper Abstracts. 1847 by Joan M. Dixon

Raised for one year by act of Congress

Timothy P Andrews Bvt Brig Gen Chapultepec died March 11,1868

Joseph E Johnston (see Topographical Engineers) - Bvt Maj Lt Col and Col Cerro Gordo and Chapultepec wounded near Cerro Gordo and at City of Mexico Gen CSA late war died March 21, 1891 at Washington DC

George A Caldwell Bvt Lt Col Chapultepec
George H Talcott See Ordnance

John W Tyler
Archibald B Campbell Surgeon USV late war died September 1 1878
James L Clarke

James J Archer Bvt Maj Chapultepec Bri Gen CSA late war; died October 24, 1864
Moses J Barnard Bvt Maj Chapultepec
Charles J Biddle Bvt Maj Chapultepec Col U.S.V. late war died September 28, 1873 at Philadelphia Pa
James D Blair (RG - CSA Louisiana Partisan Rangers)

*James N Caldwell Maj U.S.A.late war died March 13, 1886 at Carthage Ohio
 * RG - an erroneous entry is found above reference James N Caldwell (Ohio) - this officer should be listed as James H Calwell born in MD, commissioned from VA; who died from wounds received 18 Sept 1847 in Mexico. The original 1847 list found in Robarts, 1887 and Company Commander list (below) are correct.

Alexander P Churchill
Oscar E Edwards Bvt Maj Chapultepec Col CSA late war
John E Howard Bvt Maj Chapultepec
John Jones
James H Walker

John M Blakey
Alexander H Cross died 1869
Birkett D Fry Brig Gen CSA late war
John W Leigh Bvt Capt National Bridge and Cerro Gordo; Maj CSA late war
Henry C Longnecker Col U.S.V. late war died September 16, 1871
Leonidas Mclntosh - (RG note - died in Nicaragua - was the son of J. S. McIntosh (GA)- 1st Rifle Regiment - postwar Rifle Regiment and later of Mexican War fame (5th Inf). Leonidas was with Walker's "Filibuster" Expedition having been appointed a Major then a Lieutenant Colonel of the 2nd Battalion Light Infantry.)
James C Marriott
James Tilton died November 24, 1878
William S Walker Bvt Capt Chapultepec Brig Gen CSA late war
James H Woolford died May 15, 1888

Robert H Archer Lt Col CSA late war died March 10, 1878
George W Carr Col CSA late war
Theodore D Cochran Capt USA late war died July 25, 1863
Robert C Forsyth Bvt 1st Lt Chapultepec Lt Col CSA late war
James A Frost
Michael H Hooper
George R Kiger
Gustavus S Kintzing died December 6, 1884
Frank H Larned Capt U.S.A. late war
Edwin C Marvin
James R May
Van Renssalaer Otey
James E Slaughter Brig Gen CSA late war
Isaac W Smith Capt CSA late war
James H Smythe (RG - see Archer letters for the story on this officer - not good)
Washington Terrett
Charles F Vernon
Robert Swan
James M. Winder died September 6, 1847 of wounds received in action at National Bridge Mexico

- History of the Mexican War by Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox, 1892, pp. 651-652


William J Martin

BREVETS For gallant and meritorious con duct in the battle of Chapultepec Mexico September 13 1847


Bowie, Oden
"son of William Duckett and Eliza Mary Oden Bowie was born in Prince George county Maryland December 10 1826 died December 4 1894 He was educated by a private tutor at home until nine years of age when upon the death of his mother he was sent to the preparatory department of St John's College Annapolis at that time under the charge of the distinguished Professor Elwell He remained at St John's three years and at twelve years of age attended St Mary's College Baltimore where in July 1845 he graduated as valedictorian of his class Shortly afterward he began the study of law but on the breaking out of the Mexican war in 1846 he enlisted as a private in the Baltimore and Washington Battalion commanded by Lieutenant Colonel William H Watson and was promoted to a lieutenancy at the battle of Monterey where he was highly complimented for gallantry by General Taylor President Polk subsequently appointed Lieutenant Bowie senior captain of the only voltigeur regiment (RG=see *) one of the ten new United States regiments then raised by act of Congress ever in the United States service. Captain Bowie's health however proved unequal to the rigor of military life and he was compelled to return home before the end of the war, Upon his return from Mexico he devoted himself to farming....In 1860 he was made president of the Baltimore & Potomac Railroad Company and at once proceeded to push that enterprise with his customary energy, having several sections or the road under contract in 1861 when the work was interrupted by the outbreak of the Civil War. On the return of peace the construction of the road was recommended and was soon completed under Mr Bowie's intelligent management." Governor of Maryland 1867-1872 "In 1873, he was elected president of the Baltimore City Passenger Railway Company..";  died Dec 4 1894

*"...Walker of Arkansas is appointed in Bowie's place he ranks below all the other Captains.." Archer, p.414

- Baltimore: its history and its people, Volume 2 by Clayton Colman Hall, Lewis Historical Publishing Co, 1912, p.305
- The twentieth century biographical dictionary of notable Americans, edited by Rossiter Johnson, John Howard Brown, 1904

Voltigeurs and Infantry Assault of Chapultepec, 12 September, 1847.
Castaigne, A. (illus), George Barrie. 1893. Handcolored image from the deluxe publication "The Army and Navy of the United States" published in Philadelphia between 1889 and 1895 at

Voltigeur links:

Voltigeurs and Foot Riflemen - News Accounts from Virginia Tech's Mexican War and the Media - J.E. Johnston Biography links - The Chapultepec Controversy -
RG site

recent article The Regiment of Voltigeurs, USA A Case Study of the Mexican-American War by Erik Donald France 
Of note, Erik France muses on the genesis of the unit and describes the high standing and political connections of several Voltigeur officers. Philadelphian Charles John Biddle wrote directly to President Polk to gain a commission. In mentioning this younger Captain Biddle, I recollected his connection to the old Rifle Regiment in the form of his uncle, Thomas Biddle, who had been a Rifle Regiment Captain in 1821. Thomas Biddle was killed in a duel with Spencer Darwin Pettis, August 26, 1831 on Bloody Island opposite St. Louis, Missouri. Biddle had challenged Pettis after Pettis’ remarks attacking Biddle's brother Nicholas Biddle who was president of the United States Bank. Both were killed after firing at five feet.

"Modern" histories:
- Fighting Elites: A History of U.S. Special Forces By John C. Fredriksen
Regiment of Voltigeurs and Foot Riflemen, pp. 33-35
- The Mexican War 1846-1848, by Douglas V. Meed, 2002 
" short treatment of the Mexican War that I have seen . . . quite remarkable.’ -- David Niven (Author of Meriwether, The Mexican War, Eagle’s Cry etc)"

- So far from God:the U.S. war with Mexico, 1846-1848, by John S. D. Eisenhower, 2000

"a cool and thoughtful look at the understated conflict...narrative is detailed but fast-moving, and Eisenhower has brilliantly captured the political mood and the elan of the American and Mexican forces." - Raymond L. Puffer, U.S. Air Force History Program

- Army of Manifest Destiny: The American Soldier in the Mexican War, 1846-1848, by James M. McCaffrey, 1994
"McCaffrey is at his best conveying the personal dimension of the war experience. The real strength of the book lies in the effective arrangement of bit and pieces of letters and diaries, which reveal emotions and attitudes that are variously humorous, shocking, and poignant. . . . The story is compelling. . . . A well-researched and entertaining study that will hold the attention of students and general readers."—The Journal of Southern History

- The Old West: the Mexican war. by the editors of Time-Life Books, with text by David Nevin, 1978
"A lavishly illustrated volume that highlights the causes, battles, and personalities of the war."

(RG - extensive quotes from Ephraim Kirby Smith (20), Grant (13) R.S. Ripley (5), McClellan (4), Meade (2) and Barna Upton (2).)

- The Mexican-American War, 1846-1848 by Philip R. N. Katcher, Gerry Embleton, 1976
"detailing the infantry, cavalry, artillery and staff of both the American and Mexican armies."

- The Mexican War, 1846-1848, by K. Jack Bauer, 1974
"Much has been written about the Mexican war, but this . . . is the best military history of that conflict. . . . Leading personalities, civilian and military, Mexican and American, are given incisive and fair evaluations. The coming of war is seen as unavoidable, given American expansion and Mexican resistance to loss of territory, compounded by the fact that neither side understood the other. The events that led to war are described with reference to military strengths and weaknesses, and every military campaign and engagement is explained in clear detail and illustrated with good maps. . . . Problems of large numbers of untrained volunteers, discipline and desertion, logistics, diseases and sanitation, relations with Mexican civilians in occupied territory, and Mexican guerrilla operations are all explained, as are the negotiations which led to war's end and the Mexican cession. . . . This is an outstanding contribution to military history and a model of writing which will be admired and emulated."-Journal of American History. K. Jack Bauer was also the author of Zachary Taylor: Soldier, Planter, Statesman of the Old Southwest (1985) and Other Works. Robert W. Johannsen, who introduces this Bison Books edition of The Mexican War, is a professor of history at the University of Illinois, Urbana, and the author of To the Halls of Montezumas: The Mexican War in the American Imagination (1985)."

- The Mexican War, by Otis A. Singletary, 1960

"All in all, this is the best short account of the Mexican War yet written."—T. Harry Williams, The Journal of Modern History

"Old" histories:

- THE PRESIDENT AND THE ARMY The American Whig review, Volume 6  By Making of America Project, 1847

- The war and its warriors: comprising a complete history of all the operations of the American armies in Mexico : with biographical sketches and anecdotes of the most distinguished officers in the regular army and the volunteer force, by John Frost, 1848

- The war with Mexico, Volume 1, by Roswell Sabine Ripley, 1849

- The war with Mexico, Volume 2, by Roswell Sabine Ripley, 1849

- Harper's magazine, Volume 11, 1855

- The twelve months volunteer: or, Journal of a private, in the Tennessee regiment of cavalry, in the campaign, in Mexico, 1846-7; comprising four general subjects; I. A soldier's life in camp; amusements; duties; hardships; II. A description of Texas and Mexico, as seen on te march: III. Manners; customs religious ceremonies of the Mexicans; IV. The operations of all the twelve months volunteers: including a complete history of the war with gravings, from, drawings by the author, by George C. Furber, 1857



 - History of the War with Mexico, by Horatio O. Ladd, 1883

- History of The War of The United States With Great Britain in 1812, The First Seminole War, Black Hawk's War, The Second Seminole War & War With Mexico, by John Lewis Thomson, 1887

 - Mexican War veterans: a complete roster of the regular and volunteer troops, by William Hugh Robarts, 1887

- History of the Mexican War by Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox, 1892

- The war with Mexico, Volume 1, by Justin Harvey Smith, 1919

- The war with Mexico, Volume 2, by Justin Harvey Smith, 1919

Memoirs, Letters:

- Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant, by Ulysses S. Grant, 1885

The life and letters of George Gordon Meade: Volume 1, edited by George Meade, 1913

- An artillery officer in the Mexican War, 1846-7: letters of Robert Anderson, by Robert Anderson, Eba Anderson Lawton, 1913

- Our first war in Mexico, by Farnham Bishop, 1916

- To Mexico with Scott: letters of Captain E. Kirby Smith to his wife, by Ephraim Kirby Smith Johnston, 1917
Mcintosh, Colonel, pages 46, 52, 54,182, 183, 213
Scott, Major, pages 101, 104, 113, 120, 124, 129, 130, 149, 155, 156, 213

- The Mexican War diary of George B. McClellan, 1917

Of note; McClellan's "Report of the secretay of war:communicating the report of Captain George B. McClellan, (First regiment United States cavalry,) one of the officers sent to the seat of war in Europe, in 1855 and 1856," p. 40

particularly concerning the French Army Infantry (Zouaves etc) provides a  worthwhile overview and understanding of the origins and major influences on the initial approaches to the organization and esprit sought by the Union's Army of the Potomac:
"The dress of the zouave is of the Arab pattern; the cap is a loose fig, or skull cap, of scarlet felt, with a tassel; a turban is worn over this in full dress; a cloth vest and loose jacket, which leave the neck unencumbered by collar, stock, or cravat, cover the upper portion of his body, and allow free movement of the arms; the scarlet pants are of the loose oriental pattern, and are tucked under gaiters like those of the foot rifles of the guard; the overcoat is a, loose cloak, with a hood; the chasseurs wear a similar one. The men say that this dress is the most convenient possible, and prefer it to any other.
The zouaves are all French; they are selected from among the old campaigners for their fine physique and tried courage, and have certainly proved that they are what their appearance would indicate, the most reckless, self-reliant, and complete infantry that Europe can produce.
With his graceful dress, soldierly bearing, and vigilant attitude, the zouave at an outpost is the beau ideal of a soldier.
They neglect no opportunity of adding to their personal comforts; if there is a stream in the vicinity the party marching on picket is sure to be amply supplied with fishing rods, &c. ; if anything is to be had the zouaves are quite certain to obtain it.
Their movements are the most light and graceful I have ever seen; the stride is long, but the foot seems scarcely to touch the ground, and the march is apparently made without effort or fatigue.
The step of the foot rifles is shorter and quicker, and not so easy and graceful.
The impression produced by the appearance of these two corps is very different: the rifles look like active, energetic little fellows, who would find their best field as skirmishers; but the zouaves have, combined with all the activity and energy of the others, that solid ensemble and reckless dare-devil individuality which would render them alike formidable when attacking in mass, or in defending a position in the most desperate hand to hand encounter. Of all the troops that I have ever seen, I should esteem it the greatest honor to assist in defeating the zouaves. The grenadiers of the guard are all large men, and a fine looking, soldierly set.
The voltigeurs are small, active men, but larger than the rifles; they are light infantry....."

-  "A Marylander in the Mexican War: Some Letters of J.J. Archer," Maryland Historical Magazine, Volume 54 by Maryland Historical Society, 1959, pp 408-422

Articles/Websites etc:

Our First Foreign War, American Heritage Magazine, June 1966, Volume 17, Issue 4
(RG- should be titled "Letters of Barna Upton, 3rd Infantry")

- The Proving Ground - Civil War Times Feature, April 1996

- Center of Military History Mexican War Published Material

- Mexican War by the AZTEC Club of 1847
- The Mexican-American War and the Media, 1845-1848

Mexican War - General Scott's reports 
RG site

Report of the General-in-Chief of the Army, accompanying the Report of the Secretary of War...

(omitted from Sec Wars Report Appendix in the online Congressional Globe 2nd Session  December 2, 1850 to March 3, 1851)
Strykers American register and magazine, Volume 5- pp. 495-496

House documents, otherwise published. as Executive documents: by United States. Congress. House, p. 114-115

Google Book Sources:

-  National Intelligencer Newspaper Abstracts. 1847 by Joan M. Dixon

- National Intelligencer Newspaper Abstracts, 1848 by Joan M. Dixon

- Niles' weekly register, Volume 74

- An account of the organization of the army of the United States, Volume 1, by Fayette Robinson, 1848

- A dictionary of all officers: who have been commissioned, or have been Charles Kitchell Gardner, 1853

- The history and legal effect of brevets in the armies of Great Britain and the United States James Barnet Fry, 1877

- List of officers of the army of the United States from 1779 to 1900 William Henry Powell, 1900 


- Army Lineage Series - Infantry, Mahon and Danysh, 1972
- Armor-Cavalry, Part I: Regular Army and Army Reserve

- NARA-391.6.1 Textual Records: Company descriptive books of the Regiment of U.S. Voltigeurs and Foot Riflemen, 1847-48.

- A Companion to American Military History: 2 Volume Set by James C. Bradford, 2009


* wikipedia - * "Hampton's Legion was an American Civil War military unit of the Confederate States of America, organized and partially financed by wealthy South Carolina plantation  owner Wade Hampton III. Initially composed of infantry, cavalry, and artillery  battalions, elements of Hampton's Legion participated in virtually every major campaign in the Eastern Theater, from the first to the last battle.
A legion  historically consisted of a single integrated command, with individual components including infantry, cavalry, and artillery. The concept of a multiple-branch unit was never a practical application for Civil War armies and, early in the war, the individual elements were assigned to other organizations.
Organized by Wade Hampton in early 1861, Hampton's Legion initially boasted a large number of South Carolina's leading citizens, including future generals J. Johnston Pettigrew, Stephen Dill Lee, Martin W. Gary, and Matthew C. Butler. Originally, the Legion comprised six companies of infantry, two of cavalry, and one of light artillery. The infantry and cavalry fought in the First Battle of Manassas, where Colonel Hampton suffered the first of several wounds during the war. In November 1861, the artillery was then outfitted with four Blakely Rifles, imported from England and slipped through the Union blockade into Savannah, Georgia. By the end of the year, each element of the Legion had been expanded with new companies to bolster the effective combat strength.With the reorganization of the Army of Northern Virginia in mid-1862, Hampton's Legion was broken up and reassigned...infantry element, retaining the designation Hampton's Legion..In March 1864, it was converted to mounted infantry...."-

In December of 1865, at the closing of the year of final victory, a "letter to the editor" placed the  Voltigeur/Legion legacy in historical context and advocated a futurecombined arms approach to combat:

VELITES OR VOLTIGEURS; The United States army and navy journal and gazette of the regular ..., Volume 3, 1865, p. 229-230
"...In our country, Senator Benton proposed a regiment of voltigeurs, during the Mexican war, and it was raised, but it is very questionable if it ever discharged, in any one case, its peculiar duties. Voltigeurs are not chimerical, for they were rendered serviceable, as will be shown, by the Romans. They have also been recognized, as herein proved, as valuable elements of a military force by many nations, ancient as well as modern. Still to make them what they should be demands a far greater degree of sense, choice and care than any United States war administration ever yet has shown. Small, well formed, robust, agile, intelligent men, good shots, are needed on the one hand, and very strong, active, handy, chunky horses on the other. Over big horses have too much of their own weight to boar along, to carry double, and bulky men, either in height or girth, would soon break down anything but an exceedingly strong animal. A voltigeur brigade, however, might be maintained, and if kept up in regular legionary style would render sufficiently efficient service to pay for the extra care needed in iu organization and maintenance. According to General Babdin, the term voltigeur dates from the Eighteenth Century. Judging from his language, it superseded or took the place of the older batteurs d'estrade—scout—a soldier mounted or dismounted, as it may have been—or perhaps eclaireur, a title applied to members of " a corps," says Duane, " raised by Bonaparte " in France, who, from their celerity of movement, were "compared to lightning"—defined by James flankers). Eclaireurs, a half century since, according to Hoyt, were emphatically batteurs d'estrade who led the army, resembling feelers, observing everything, guarded the flanks in passing defiles, and prevented ambuscades. ...We needed such men exceedingly during our late civil war, and it would seem of paramount importance while at peace to provide them against a future conflict...."


Oct 1, 2010 ... I thought it would be interesting to continue that trend, moving on this time to introduce the Regiment of U.S. Voltigeurs and Foot Riflemen ...


NARAtions » Family Tree Friday: U.S. Voltigeurs in the Mexican War

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